Psychology Issues:Childhood Development

Each stage of an individual’s development is important. However, childhood can be regarded as one of the most important periods in a person’s life. Children acquire new skills, knowledge and learn how to perceive the world. Five-year-old children experience loads of new things and this is why this period can be regarded as one of the most interesting.

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Children at five often start school. They become a part of the society and they understand that they are not as special as some of their relatives may repeat. It is obvious that parenting (or rather the right type of parenting) is crucial for children’s development at that period. The transition from the family into schooling can be challenging for many children and can affect their cognitive, socio-emotional, and even physical development. Hence, it is essential to utilize positive parenting as it has proved to be effective.

In the first place, it is essential to consider peculiarities of the development of a 5-year-old child. At this age, children continue their physical development: they grow and acquire new skills. For instance, at this age, children can run quite fast; they can hop and jump (Berger, 2008). They can hold a spoon and fork. They can hold a pen and pencil. They can draw objects.

Children’s cognitive development is also quite rapid. Thus, children expand their vocabulary, they pronounce most of the sounds correctly, and they use quite complex sentences. They also have a longer attention span. If taught, children can count up to 10 or further, can read simple texts or, at least, words, can do simple sums, can say their name and address.

As has been mentioned above, children often go to school at this age. Hence, they acquire new social skills. They learn how to communicate with peers and adults. They learn how to make friends and handle conflicts that appear all the time. Children learn how to react to this or that action of their peers.

It is clear that this period of children’s life can affect the way their personality develops. Any unresolved conflict can result in emotional or communicational disorders. Therefore, it is essential to make sure that 5-year-olds get the necessary attention and assistance from their parents. Positive parenting can be the best option for parents and their 5-year-old children.

At this point, it is necessary to define the concept of positive parenting. Nicholson, Berthelsen, Abad, Williams and Bradley (2008, p. 227) note that positive parenting involves “positive interactional skills such as parental responsiveness, warmth, and sensitivity combined with an absence of angry, irritable parental”. In other words, positive parenting is the focus on positive emotions and avoidance of the negative attitude.

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This approach has an impact on “key factors associated with developmental outcomes” (Nicholson et al., 2008, p. 227). It has been acknowledged that children who are exposed to fights and various negative emotions are more likely to develop some developmental disorders (Berger, 2008).

It is also necessary to add that positive parenting has been a matter of debate and research. On the one hand, researchers note that parents can positively influence the development of their children through being role models. Parents can and should encourage a child to live an active life. The child should see that sport plays an important role in his/her parents’ life. Reading books and going to museums should also be the norm for the family.

Talking, explaining things, and having a lot of good time will help the child develop the necessary cognitive and socioemotional skills (Berger, 2008). Parents should be counselors and guides, not some strict guards. Nicholson et al. (2008) add that music favorably affects the development of positive relationships between parents and their children of all ages. Of course, it is necessary to use this finding in developing effective tools for positive parenting.

It is also important to add that some parents do not utilize this approach correctly. They simply praise their children for everything and even for no reason. They allow the children to do anything and to have anything but this cannot be regarded as positive parenting (Reece, 2013). Parents should employ an approach correctly.

At the same time, some researchers stress that positive parenting is very difficult and even impossible to use approach. Thus, Reece (2013) emphasizes that positive parenting requires too much time and effort. For example, parents should always remain models.

Such a simple example of using bad words is very suggestive. Adults often use some inappropriate words in certain situations and if these words are used in the household the child will simply copy the ways common for the family (Reece, 2013). More so, the researcher adds that some parents cannot utilize it due to many reasons (for example, socioeconomic issues). Sometimes parents need assistance in parenting and there are quite many strategies to help them.

For instance, practitioners have developed particular strategies to utilize positive parenting. Triple P-Positive Parenting Program can be regarded as an illustration of such tools. The program is “a comprehensive public health model of intervention” aimed at providing parents with the necessary tools to be good parents (Sanders, 2008, p. 506).

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The program provides guidance through media (journals, websites, and TV programs), discussions, counseling, training and so on. Parents can help their children develop physically, cognitively and emotionally. Parents are taught about the importance of helping their children to develop and about effective strategies to employ.

Nonetheless, some researchers argue that the program is not as effective as some think it is. Thus, many parents with diverse cultural backgrounds cannot access the program (Morawska et al., 2011). It is noteworthy that the people (when they learn about the peculiarities of the program) find it quite helpful.

However, they also note that there are certain barriers, as they cannot access the training sessions due to lack of time, money and so on. It is clear that the program works but it is not accessible for many people. Therefore, it is essential to focus on the development of a more accessible program for parents based on the existing one.

In conclusion, it is necessary to note that positive parenting is an effective approach, especially when it comes to children at the age of five. These children are entering a new stage of their life, and they need their parents’ support. It is obvious that some parents do not know about effective strategies of positive parenting and, hence, they also need assistance.

This assistance can be provided through an improved Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. The program should be more accessible. Parents will learn how to have a positive approach to parenting. This will positively affect the development of their children.

Reference List

Berger, K.S. (2008). The developing person through childhood and adolescence. New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

Morawska, A., Sanders, M., Goadby, E., Headley, C., Hodge, L., McAuliffe, C., … Anderson, E. (2011). Is the triple p-positive parenting program acceptable to parents from culturally diverse backgrounds? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20(1), 614-622.

Nicholson, J.M., Berthelsen, D., Abad, V., Williams, K., & Bradley, J. (2008). Impact of music therapy to promote positive parenting and child development. Journal of Health Psychology, 13(2), 226-238.

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Reece, H. (2013). The pitfalls of positive parenting. Ethics and Education, 8(1), 42-54.

Sanders, M.R. (2008). Triple p-positive parenting program as a public health approach to strengthening parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(3), 506-517.

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