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Rheumatoid Arthritis: Development, Treatment, and Prevention


Rheumatoid arthritis is among the common ailments destabilizing the community today. The disorder is autoimmune and provokes the body to attack the membranes lining of human joints mistakenly. This disease causes abnormal inflammation, which can be chronic, and even worse it primarily affects human joints. In the past, diseases used to be age-sensitive, but today, some of the illnesses, which were known to be common in older people can as well affect the young generation, too. Illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis, cellulitis and erysipelas, and oral thrush are among disorders that do not predictably adhere to age sensitivity according to the case study.

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The Role of Genes in the Development of Arthritis

The 12-year-old boy, as explained in the case, has arthritis. The disease typically affects the joints, with the resultant reaction, taking place symmetrically. Therefore, if the disease is on one leg, the other leg will be affected too (U.S National Library of Medicine, n.d). An unfortunate concern is that joint inflammation happens because of two main issues: an individual’s environment and genes. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder, which means the illness materializes when the human system attacks its organs and tissues (U.S National Library of Medicine, n.d). Possibility dynamics for this disease are genes, which are a determinant of the immune system’s function. The variations, which take place in human leukocyte antigen, are the main risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis. Genes normally transform a natural adaptability function, and, in the process, affect the formation of these disorders.

Comparison and Contrast of Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are disorders with similar yet different characteristics. RA is known as a complex autoimmune disease but it has fluctuating symptoms. The illness’s mitosis nature causes it to be intricate because it creates unique patterns inside a patient’s body. The RA symptoms are similar to osteoarthritis; therefore, the condition is always mistaken to be osteoarthritis. The confusion is worse at the initial stages of the disorder. These diseases’ main symptoms are joint pains but they have varied diagnostic criteria. The main difference, however, is found in the disorders’ underlying nature. Unlike being an autoimmune disorder like RA, OA transpires as a degenerative condition happening due to increased tear and wear of joints (Freeman, 2020). Thus far, it is agreeable that the diseases are similar in symptoms as they both exhibit skeletal discomforts but are different in their natures. The distinguishing issue therefore is; OA is a disorder that ensues through the joint wasting process, while RA happens through generating autoimmune malady.

The Diagnosis of Erysipelas and Cellulitis

In most cases, diagnosing an ailment transpires by considering the examination and history of the disorder or the patient. For cellulitis syndrome molecular and cultural purulent to be realized, the diagnostic procedure is determined by the cellulitis in association with pustular focus or a wound (Freeman, 2020). It is essential to mention, as well, that prior episodes related to cellulitis, venous insufficiency, and preexisting lymphedema in this context have the potential to predispose the condition. The antibiotics, which are targeted as the most common etiologies, are reliable in bringing about the necessary resolutions. Therefore, it is important to mention that proper examination of these complaints is by paying attention to various issues, which tangibly contribute to a diagnosis that can be depended on.

The proper definition of cellulitis discloses it as an acute disease that spreads as a skin infection but with distinct borders. Principally, the spread involves or affects the subcutaneous and dermis tissues. The illness’s characteristics are linked to aspects that cause warmth sensations, edema, erythema, and skin tenderness, and its occurrence can be on extremity conditions (Freeman, 2020). Erysipelas, on the other hand, is a type of superficial cellulitis infection arising with distinct insincere cellulitis with notable lymph. These sicknesses’ primary diagnostic factors include; cutaneous barrier disruption, skin discomfort, macular erythema with borders that are indistinct on skin among other factors. Additionally, the risk of MRSA infection and erythema raised with erysipelas (demarcated margins) as well forms another diagnostic factor.

The correct diagnosis is based on the context of the following factors. The analysis should seek to understand whether the patient has a diabetic and immune-compromised history, constitutional prodrome, regional issues, or lymphangitis lymphadenopathy. In some circumstances, risk factors contribute to the aspects of diagnosis. Some of the hazards, which should be noted are wound or ulcers, prior cellulitis episodes, lymphedema, tineas pedis interdigital, and venous or chronic and insufficiency leg edema (Freeman, 2020). Some further investigations to consider include skin biopsy, blood culture, plain film x-ray, CT scan, and ultrasound, among other things. Importantly, the true diagnostic mechanism for these diseases involves investigating the individual, their historical front, and other factors connecting to the possibility of causing the disease, considering that symptoms can vary greatly.

Correct Diagnosis as per Sally’s Case

White patches in the mouth, as it is in Sally’s case, reveal a condition known as oral candidiasis. This illness occurs when the fungus Candida albicans manages to accrue on a patient’s mouth lining. Typically, the symptoms, however, are realized when these organisms overgrow (Freeman, 2020). For Sally, the correct diagnosis would be to consider the location and her habit of using antibiotics as the root cause of her condition. The physical examination should include a blood examination to identify any possible damage to the body because of the antibiotics she used. Such examination is important as it helps recognize the damage of these bacteria in an individual’s mouth. Besides, observation and historical context of a patient is another factor that helps note when, where, and how far the disease has affected the victim.

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The Causes, Treatment, and Prevention

The human immune system usually works as a repellant of harmful organism invasions. Some of these dangerous raids are bacteria, viruses, and fungi, but the body strives to balance bad and good microbes in the body (Freeman, 2020). Candida fungus is considered among these attacks; however, it overpowers the body when there is a weakened immune system, aspects of diabetes, and Medications. For Sally, the probable cause of her infection is the use of medications, as narrated in her history. She admits to having used medications before the condition occurred and considering that antibiotics are disturbers of human microorganism balance, this becomes a proven cause. The treatment plan for her would be to use antifungal medication. Whether liquid or tablet, this suppository will be convenient for her, though the prescription needs to work through her body. Sally could have prevented this from happening by practicing proper oral hygiene and avoiding taking many antibiotics (Freeman, 2020). The brush should be replaced as regularly as possible, and use mouthwash to ensure proper cleaning of the mouth.


In conclusion, the human body is bound to be affected by diseases like arthritis and mouth rush, among other ailments. Luckily, these ailments are subjected to diagnosis and treatment in case there is a need to normalize the patient’s condition. Some disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis among others, are gene-related. Thus, it becomes difficult to prevent, but proper medication will always control the pace of the disease in the human body. Mouth rush is very much treatable, as well as erysipelas and cellulitis. All these victims in the case, however, are at liberty of receiving proper treatment for the conditions they are suffering from.


Freeman, J. (2020). RA vs. OA: Which is worse – Rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis?. Living With RA.

U.S National Library of Medicine (n.d). Rheumatoid arthritis. MedlinePlus. Web.

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