Training and development are imperative aspects of organizational performance. This is because the environment in which most businesses function presently is constantly changing and is full of challenges. Most organizations have proved that training and development are crucial for an organization to meet the increasing customer demand, and face the competition and openings that are beyond their reach. Hence training of employees at a personal level depending on their position and skills is seen as a means for gauging the general performance of an organization. Because most companies are currently engaging in foreign trade, a specialized training approach for employees is vital to advance staff abilities, particularly in the field of information technology and marketing. Training and development provides tremendous organizational changes in relation to steady and uncertainty of environmental changes. Studies argue that growth and training programs improve the efficiency and performance of any organization currently in the existance. Organizations gain competitive benefit from development and training. This is achieved through eliminating performance deficiencies, staff retention; reduced accidents, damage and scraps; and meeting future staff needs. There is increased flexibility, stability, and potential for development in an organization.
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The focus of this review is to explore the impact of training and development on organizational performance. It explores the importance of training and development and shows how this contributes to organizational performance. This review is based on secondary data which encompass an inclusive literature review. It discusses how learning and development relates to organizational performance, and further explores how employee performances arbitrate a positive relationship between learning and development activities and organizational performance. Through training, employees realize better income and improved working conditions, high self-esteem and increased job fulfilment. In addition, training helps in building employees confidence by appreciating the abilities they have. Thus this paper intends to confirm that there is a positive relationship between organizational performance and training. It moreover discusses the effectiveness of how learning and development work as a change agent in managing change within the organization, and the impact that training and development would have on the bottom line. It finally explores the significance of training and development in the process of selection within the organization. The research methodology employed in this paper is primarily qualitative. An analysis of findings is drawn from the discussion and conclusion arrived, which is that training and development has a significant impact on the overall performance of an organization.
Randhawa, ( 2007.p114) define training as a process of learning that entails the acquirement of expertise, improvement of skills, ideas, rules, or modification of behaviours and attitudes to improve employee performance. Training is an event that results in professional performance. Moreover, training refers to a temporary process of sharpening the skills and knowledge of staff to enable them to carry out the responsibilities assigned to them. Once a worker is selected, positioned and introduced in a business association, he should be offered with training services to enable him to carry out his responsibilities with competence. Development refers to a permanent learning process employing a planned and logical procedure through which administrative staffs learn theoretical and conceptual knowledge for the universal purpose. It also refers to learning openings tailored to assist the workforce to grow. It offers common knowledge and approach which are important to high-rank employees and is not specifically skill-oriented. Efforts towards growth mostly rely on individual ambition and drive.
The main objective of the training is to assist the organization to realize its goals by adding value to its employees. Training is concerned with investing in human resources to facilitate them improve their performance and empower them to maximally utilize their talents. The specific aims of training include: to expand the abilities of the workforce and enhance their performance; assist individuals to develop within the company so that the prospect human resource wants can be met inside the organization; and to reduce the duration of time needed for staff commencing on fresh jobs on promotion, appointment, or transfers, and guarantee that they are totally proficient as fast and cost-effectively as feasible. Every training and growth program should include inputs which facilitate participants to acquire skills, learn abstract concepts and assist in acquiring vision to focus on the future.
Schneier (1994. p26) confirms that training plays an important role in the attainment of an organizations objective by bringing the interests of the organization and that of employee together. Currently, training is the most crucial factor in the world of business due to the fact that training raises the effectiveness and the efficiency of both workers and the organization. The performance of employees relies on several factors. However, the most crucial factor is training. This is because training is significant in improving the skills of the workforce. The employees who posses more work experience have improved performance due to increased skills and abilities gained from the work experience. Additionally, training affects investment returns. The performance of a business relies on staff performance due to the fact that the human capital of a business plays a crucial role in the expansion and performance of a company. Therefore, to enhance the performance of the staff and the organization, training is provided to the organizational workforce. Thus the objective of this paper is to confirm that there is a positive relationship between training and staff performance.
Training and growth increases the performance of employees. Studies confirm that staff performance is the crucial factor and the foundation that raises the general performance of an organization. Staff performance relies on several factors which include management, job fulfilment and knowledge. However, there is a connection between performance and training. This confirms that staff performance is crucial for the performance of the business, and training and growth is beneficial for the workers to enhance its performance. Therefore the aim of this paper is to portray the effect of training and growth on staff performance (Rothwell, Gerity & Gaertner, 2004.p45).
Studies confirm that training helps in developing managerial ability. Thus organizations should not focus on controlling the increasing expenditures on training because, by training and growth, the organization achieves more effectiveness and efficiency. This substantiates that training enhances the effectiveness and efficiency of employees and the organization as a whole. Currently, organizations realize that training is crucial for staff development, and the staff growth promotes self-fulfilling abilities and talents of the staff, reduces operational expenses, and confines organizational accountabilities and varying objectives and goals.
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Employee training enhances customer care and outcomes and increases professionalism within the staff. Additionally, training improves effectiveness, thus resulting in efficiency in resource utilization within the organization. Starting training programs within the organization improves employee relations, and this, in turn, enhances team-co-operation and organization and performance. Training moreover minimizes the rate of staff turnover and enhances employee retention. Additionally, training is linked with advancements in planning and job procedures, leading to increased effectiveness and quality maintenance within the organization. Through training, employees realize better income and improved working conditions, high self-esteem and increased job fulfilment. In addition, training helps in building employees confidence by appreciating the abilities they have. Thus this paper is intended to confirm that there is a positive relationship between organizational performance and training (Lusthaus, 1999.p68).
When an organization is newly started, personnel and employee training are highly crucial because they form the organizational foundation. Additionally, existing organizations that initiate a fresh product constantly requires environmental training because clients may be aware of the organization but may be unfamiliar with the new product. Thus companies have realized that training and development are essential for business performance and that training is a continuous process. Training on personality development is additionally crucial for individual development to portray the organizational competence of their firm to the community. This also helps employees to carry out their internal and civil roles with integrity in order to preserve their honourable positions.
Statement of the problem and research justification
Different training entails practical, theory and situational approach for staff to get acquainted with their places of work. If every employee sustains and develops his skills gained through training, then efficiency in organizational performance is certain. This promotes changes and development, expectedly market approval and profit maximization would be the positive impact of that particular training (Bohlander, 2010.p365). Training on team building raises the organizational solidarity that can improve employee relations and reduce conflict among the staff in the workplace. This creates a good environment for workers and ultimately leads to improved organizational performance.
Normally the basic revolution of an employee for training and growth calls for adoptive conduct and changes of an individual’s organization to improve efficiency. Workers can increase their self-respect and value at the time of such training. Employees must develop and learn new abilities and use the newly acquired knowledge in improving their job performance. The general effect of employee training is organizational growth. Inclusion of training influences the organizational prestige and pride that guarantees prolonged existence of the organization in the industry. Additionally, training can drive the company to achieve more than it anticipates.
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact learning and development programs for employees have on organizational performance and how such processes can be utilized in order to create a better and more effective workforce.
There are several objectives to this study:
The first objective is to investigate whether learning and development be positively related to organizational performance. This is done in order to determine the viability of current practices and how they impact the operations of a company. The second objective entails an investigation as to whether employee performance actually has an impact on the operational capacity and capability of an organization through a positive relationship between learning and development activities. This is done in order to determine just how valuable learning and developmental activities are in creating an effective workforce and how this results in a more efficient and effective company. The third objective questions the viability of learning and development activities as effective “change agents” in managing changes within an organization.
From this objective, the consequences of change and how it is managed within an organization will be examined to see whether it can create positive organizational effects and limit the inherent problems that crop up when various changes are implemented within an organization. The fourth objective of this study questions the impact of training and development on a company’s bottom line. This objective examines the cost-effectiveness of training and development and whether it is viable and above all, cost-effective addition to a company’s operational structure. The last objective of this study questions whether training and development can be a so-called “cure” for weak selection processes within organizations. This objective attempts to discover whether employees can be trained and developed in such a way that they are able to overcome their initial limitations and become valuable resources for the company.
According to Sekaran (2006, p. 1), a survey/questionnaire technique is used when the researcher is principally interested in descriptive, explanatory or exploratory appraisal, as is the case in this study (Sekaran 2006, p.1). The justification for choosing a questionnaire approach for this particular study is grounded on the fact that participants will have the ability to respond to the data collection tool by way of self-report. Thus, this project will utilize a self-administered questionnaire schedule for the purposes of data collection. An analysis of related literature will also be used to compare the study findings in order to develop a succinct method of analysis regarding current practices utilized by Ernst & Young and Siemens involving learning and development programs for their employees.
Significance of the Study
The significance of this study lies in its potential to show the importance of training and development programs in improving the operational performance within organizations and how such processes are indispensable due to the proven correlation between talented employees and the positive development of a company. It is important to note that as multinational corporations continue to expand into new markets, it has become increasingly apparent that effectively integrating managerial practices found in one business culture to another often creates a mixed result which at times reduces the operational effectiveness of a pioneering branch within a new location. Since globalization and multiculturalism have become synonymous aspects of the global market place companies, need to respond to the diverse consumer and cultural demographics to which they sell their products and services to stay relevant. Not only that, companies need to be able to address the very real concern of a potential brain drain as a direct result of local recruitment practices that would in effect steal valuable and talented employees way from the company.
Relationship between learning, development and organizational performance
Learning can be defined as the act of obtaining skills, knowledge, opinions and altitude while development entails implementing what is already acquired (Huber 1991, p.88). Learning as a multidimensional construct is a process of transforming skills and knowledge into the desired change in an organization. Empirical studies have revealed that learning and development are key concepts that affect organizational performance positively (Huber 1991, p.88). Learning and development in a business promote innovation, and thus they are positively related to organizational performance. Imperatively, myriad organizations look forward to devising new strategies that will enable them to achieve a competitive advantage. Youndt et al. (1996, p. 836) note that recent changes occurring within business environment compel them to promote learning and development in order to have a competitive edge since most of the traditional and conventional strategies often become obsolete (Vandenberg, Richardson & Eastman 1999, pp.313). Moreover, employing these concepts helps them to overcome impending threats while new skills improve future performance in an organization.
Numerous scholars attest that learning is part of development in an organization. In fact, Akgun et al. (2007, p. 501) propose that through learning, innovative capabilities in a firm are enhanced, a factor that elevates competitiveness and performance. Research conducted by Bates and Khasawneh (2005, p 99) has shown that the only way to implement new ideas, services, processes and products is by incorporating the concepts in a firm. In line with this, evidence has shown that learning and development affect performance in an organization both directly and indirectly. From a conceptual framework, the use of integrative models of learning in organizations has proved to stimulate growth and development of new ideas that in turn affects the performance (Bracker & Cohen 1992, p. 2). For instance, generative learning enhances change of culture, belief, values, policies, goals and strategies by use of feedbacks. In this case, it fosters analysis of past actions in order to propagate transformational change. Moreover, this type of learning challenges the current status of an organization with the aim of improving performance (Huber 1991, p.88).
In line with this, Vandenberg, Richardson and Eastman (1999, pp.313) write that adaptive learning is also a crucial model of learning since it stimulates establishment of development strategies geared to help the firm to cope with the immediate circumstance. Notably, there are abrupt changes occurring in firms and can affect the performance, especially if they emerged unexpectedly. These changes include recession, inflation and other obvious threats (Akgun et al. 2007, p. 502). Adaptive learning and development help to maintain the focal features and maintain the organizational status quo. Moreover, this makes it easy for an organization to restrict itself to identifying and detecting errors that can affect its overall performance. In most instances, organizations are prompted to develop rudimentary associations within its context to ensure short-term effects on the outcomes (Bates & Khasawneh 2005, p 101). Both generative and adaptive learning models complement each other to enable an organization to identify new markets, products, services and customers. Studies have shown that most businesses adopt these models of learning to ensure flexibility and adaptability, factors that enhance performance (Huber 1991, p.88).
Bates and Khasawneh (2005, p 102) point out that innovation in an organization is essential in enhancing good performance and that it comes about due to promoting learning and development. From a scholarly perspective, Ferris et al. (1999, p. 385) acknowledge that innovation comes about due to environmental changes. These changes trigger the development of new ideas through learning. Therefore, it is definite that learning and development are the key recipients geared toward enhancing creativity, pro-activeness and risk-taking. When we talk of innovation, we consider developmental changes experienced in management, marketing and entrepreneurship strategies. Having this in mind, Vandenberg, Richardson and Eastman (1999, pp.319) record that learning boosts applications, creativity and profitability that are crucial in determining organizational performance.
From the identified benefits, it is certain that learning and development in an organization is no longer a choice but a basic need. In fact, Youndt et al. (1996, p. 837) lament that it is impossible for any organization to ignore learning and development processes since they are regarded as key in enhancing capability and effectiveness in any organizational operation. Moreover, long term survival of an organization, its competitiveness and the potential to achieve high performance is highly dependent on learning and development programs. Notably, realizing the significance of these concepts has attributed to a great deal of determining the future performance of an organization. Ferris et al. (1999, p. 386) prove that there is a prominence relationship between these concepts and organizational performance in the sense that organizations that incorporate them inconsistently demonstrate negative trends in their outputs. That notwithstanding, researchers admit that unless these constructs are applied in line with organizational objectives, there might not be any relationship and hence integrated interaction is vital to ensure that desired outcome is realized (Bates & Khasawneh 2005, p 99).
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Recent studies have expounded that performance management in an organization does not come an easy way, and this calls for one to incorporate these activities (Vandenberg, Richardson & Eastman 1999, pp.323). Essentially, learning and development helps to optimize coordination and management of human resources, making it easy to heighten competitive pressures (Huber 1991, p.88). From a general consensus conducted in myriad firms, evidence has illustrated that these two constructs are the major prerequisites for a triumphant performance. Findings derived from a study conducted by Bracker and Cohen (1992, p. 4) revealed that learning and development increases job satisfaction, a factor that attributes toward maximum production.
Learning and development activities in relation to organizational performance
Apparently, employees’ performance can be used to adjudicate a positive relationship between learning, development and organizational performance. Akgun et al. (2007, p. 506) advocate that employees’ performance is influence by numerous factors. For instance, harmony is crucial in learning activities in an organization. This enhances the collective approach and coordination of vital task. For this to happen, employees should have competent skills, values and knowledge that will enable them to adhere to strategic rules, policies and goals in an organization (Huber 1991, p.89). It has been observed that numerous organizations where there is cooperation among workers often experience productivity and high performance. Needless to say, job satisfaction boosts the morale of workers, and the impacts are determined by analyzing their performance. Ferris et al. (1999, p. 387) present a study illustrating that work output in the organization that has useful tools such as learning and development experience high performance. Youndt et al. (1996, p. 838) concur with this idea where he acknowledges that organizations that have recorded low employees’ performance are considered to lack development and learning program.
Huber (1991, p.90) elucidates that employees’ performance can be promoted by encouraging learning and development. This boosts the quality of services delivered, a factor that advances the organizational reputation. Lunenburg (2010, p.1) notes that whenever employees enrol in learning and development programs, they become flexible, responsible and are able to adapt to diverse changes in the organization (Bueno & Ordoñez 2004, p. 531). These programs also complement their indigenous skills and knowledge hence boosts their workforce. Therefore, it is anticipated that the increased performance of workers in an organization is a clear indicator that learning and development have positive effects on overall performance. Ferris et al. (1999, p. 391) comment that numerous organizations aimed at improving the overall performance by making use of these processes.
According to Lunenburg (2010, p.3), learning and development processes should be given considerable attention since they largely demonstrate or determine the relationship between employees and organizational performance. This is due to the fact that there are cultural assumptions that interfere with employees’ performance (Bates & Khasawneh 2005, p 109). Since human management is a crucial activity; this should be deliberated through learning. Though a hard approach of determining the relationship between performance, learning and development one should note that human resource output incorporates acquired skills to bring about a positive attribute in an organization (Vandenberg, Richardson & Eastman (1999, pp.361). Studies have shown that a positive relationship between the two variables is influenced by the organization commitment toward implementing learning and development. To emphasize this, Bates and Khasawneh (2005, p 109) assert that these variables; learning, development and performance in an organization are closely linked. In this case, either of the variables can be used to determine the relationship between the other two components. Employees’ performance is directly proportional to the outputs derived from learning and development (Raduan, Naresh &Ong 2009, p.2).
Impacts of training and learning on the bottom line
Studies have shown that there are numerous ways in which training and learning in an organization impacts the bottom line. Zwick (2006, p.26) notes that training and learning in an organization helps to cascade the entire strategies used to learn an organization. In this case, without training and learning, it becomes very difficult to implement and develop new strategies in an organization. Consequently, Youndt et al. (1996, p. 841) elucidate that the performance and end results in an organization are subject to skills and knowledge gained through training. Arguably, it is definite that the two processes help to identify critical issues that are vital in organizations. Whenever employees learn new strategies, they are able to exercise explicit alignment to achieve objectives and relevant goals in an organization (Bassi & McMurrer 1998, p.40). As a result, stakeholders in any business become strategy-driven, a factor that increases the benefits derived in the overall activities.
In line with this, training in the current century has been regarded as a crucial tool for enhancing business activities. To some extent, the kind of training given to employees in a business helps to predict the outcomes. Once trained, Zwick (2006, p.27) highlights that employees are expected to depict progress in helping the organization make attractive returns in its investments. Moreover, learning helps the, to achieve both long-term and short term objectives with ease. Nevertheless, studies have shown that most organizations decline to offer learning and training services to employees since they take much time before positive results can be realized (Vandenberg, Richardson & Eastman, 1999, pp.386). In this case, these activities are often ignored, and time that could have been spared is used as upfront to increase organizational performance. A critical evaluation has revealed that organizations that offer training and learning services to employees have high success rate than those who ignore it. Therefore, one can deduce that these practices have a positive cost-benefit ratio irrespective of the expenses incurred (Bassi & McMurrer 1998, p.41).
Research has revealed that learning is an investment that is directly supported through training. Akgun et al. (2007, p. 511) present an assumption that through learning and training processes, myriad individuals get to understand and analyze various structures within the organization. Furthermore, they get to comply with the authority, values, culture, and customs, decision-making and staffing. There are other added values that are experienced by workers once they undergo training. For instance, Zwick (2006, p.28) notes that employees benefit from career development, succession planning, performance management, budgeting and informed thinking. According to Bracker and Cohen (1992, p. 13), these activities aids individuals to reinforce desired output and set boundaries without the need of being supervised.
From a scholarly approach, Vandenberg, Richardson and Eastman (1999, pp.389) analyze that some of the leading organizations are at the forefront in investigating and utilizing diverse modalities to train and enhance the learning of their employees. These organizations ensure that employees get the appropriate knowledge and skills at the right time, manner, place and cost (Bates & Khasawneh 2005, p 102). Some of the notable modalities include classrooms and training stations. During the learning and training sessions, workers get an opportunity to practice role-play, blended learning and technology applications. Recently, the advancement of technology has enhanced distance learning where employees train and learn at through e-learning modalities (Jemenez-Jemenez & Sanz-valle 2010, p. 411). Having driven the skills and knowledge through diverse channels helps the organization to match workers skills with anticipated benefits.
Training and learning in contemporary organizations help to capitalize on employees’ ability and prospective through shared accountability. Zwick (2006, p.28) argues that competent organizations are those that aim at tapping into the potential and ability of employees. This is done through self-directed learning and training programs. In the long run, employs get an opportunity to identify their personal needs hence create their own learning plans. Moreover, having identified their strength and weaknesses, they are able to seek available opportunities to presuppose relevant knowledge and skills that will help them cope with the external and internal environment in the workplace (Huber 1991, p.97).
From a careful review of literature, every organization should experience the Transferability of acquaintance and skills back to the organization (Bassi & McMurrer 1998, p.41). This is one of the key factors that determine whether training programs are relevant in a business. Timing of training activities and impacting of relevant content to workers boost their appropriateness and quality of their skill. This also helps them to maintain and acquire new skills and knowledge (Tharenou, Alan & Moore 2007, 257). This is a sure guarantee of the organization’s future success. From a theoretical perspective, it is worthy to note that learning and training should be exercise regularly and designed to perform specific functions aligned to the needs of an organization. Zwick (2006, p.29)concurs with this idea as he argues that the continuous learning process acts as a drive to positive change in behaviour, habits and culture in an organization.
Learning and development as a change agent in managing change within the organization
Leaning and development acts as a change agent in an organization in numerous ways. What you have to understand is that organizational development and management are considered to be necessary and viable methods of enhancing a workforce. Therefore, the change agent is vital in enhancing readiness to meet future changes. Akgun et al. (2007, p. 507) note that systematic development and learning strategies aims to bring about the desired change in organizational culture. Moreover, the change is experienced in workers altitudes, beliefs, opinions, values and organizational structure (Bracker & Cohen 1992, p. 12). Chaos and challenges due to disruptive technology, competition and shrinking market are inevitable in business. This calls for a solid framework to impact strategies determined to drive the organization toward acquiring desired results (Huber 1991, p.92).
There are perennial events that occur in an organization and influence its performance either positively or negatively. Youndt et al. (1996, p. 839) point out those successful organizations employ concerted collaboration within and outside the firm in order to discover the appropriate change strategies. An effective change agent helps to stabilize the structure while maintaining or improving organizational performance. The only appropriate built-in mechanism to employ in such a case is none other learning and development processes (Huber 1991, p.93). These components help to boost the immunity of a firm as it struggles to renew its inclusive principles. The identified change agent acts as a catalyst that enables the application of techniques and theories from numerous disciplines. This aids in appropriate and collective decision-making while coaching workers to synchronize their mind in the desired perspective (Akgun et al. (2007, p. 510).
Myriad organizations have got systems that are vital in executing processes for positive outputs. Therefore, learning and development help to conduct a holistic interplay for all the systems through incremental and effective strategies. Bartel (1994, p. 421) notes that this change agent has a transformational effect in the sense that it put into practice effectual organizational adjustments. For instance, it helps employees to identify viable opportunities and apply resources for production processes. Whenever there is a change, workers are able to identify and develop their full potential. Youndt et al. (1996, p. 839) write that a change in organizations is inevitable, and hence once it occurs, employees get an opportunity to develop new experiences. In this case, the constructs bring about effectiveness in the diversified strategies geared to achieve goals (Bueno & Ordoñez 2004, p. 532).
Research has proven that exposing employees and stakeholder to learning and developmental processes will eventually help them to make informed and rational decisions (Raduan, Naresh &Ong 2009, p.2). For this reason, they are able to create a favourable environment within and outside the workplace amid impending threats. More specifically, learning influences how people in an organization relate with each other (Huber 1991, p.88). This easily attributed to the adoption of a common culture through consistent interaction. The change agent also enables workers to become more functional even in diverse technical fields such as accounting, finance and production (Tharenou, Alan & Moore 2007, p. 254).
One of the prime objectives of learning and training is to improve the overall organizations’ capacity, thereby enabling them to cope with internal and external relationships and functions. Bartel (1994, p. 423) laments that this can not be possible with the absence of interpersonal and teamwork processes. Once workers enrol in classrooms or learning and developmental programs, they develop groups that are essential for enhancing teamwork. In most case, they bond depending on their area of expertise. This makes communication effective where information is disseminated with ease and appropriate responses taken within a short period (Raduan, Naresh &Ong 2009, p.6). Moreover, skills, knowledge and values that result from experience gained help to deal with diverse challenges in organizations. Moreover, there is an aspect of change within the leadership arena. According to Bracker and Cohen 1992, p. 12,) learning and development inculcate change in leadership styles, a factor that helps to curb destructive conflicts that arise on a daily basis. Moreover, these constructs also constitute an increase in the level of trust, cooperation and responsibility among members in organizations.
Economic scholars argue that learning and development foster organizational renewal. In this case, it enables members to develop set of tools, action plan, altitudes and behaviours geared to maintaining a positive culture and performance in an organization (Ferris et al. 1999, p. 385). Besides this, there are crucial activities within an organization that are crucial in determining its progress. For instance, management, marketing, production risk analysis and evaluation are some of the vital activities that can not be carried out without competent skills. These activities bring about effective change once they are executed appropriately. However, this is not possible if any organization opts to ignore the effects of a catalyst or change agent (Akgun et al. 2007, p. 501).
Youndt et al. (1996, p. 840) elucidate that it is important to understand the nature of organizations in order to examine the impacts of a change agent. Failure to do this will eventually lead to poor planning of learning and development processes. Consequently, these construct might not impact any positive change in an organization (Lunenburg 2010, p.4). In order to understand and incorporate the necessary changes in an organization, it is imperative to consider numerous factors. For instance, the purpose of an organization helps one to inculcate changes that are geared toward accomplishing the objectives, goals and mission statement. In line with this, Bartel (1994, p. 423) states that understanding the organization structure prompts one to identify strategies of amending or improving internal structures. Moreover, this helps to evaluate where interior divisions are adequate to achieve the purpose of an organization.
Tharenou, Alan and Moore (2007, p.254) acknowledge that change in relationships within an organization is necessary at some point. Nevertheless, to bring about the change one needs to understand the relationship between units, tasks, requirements, resources and people within the firm (Ferris et al. 1999, p. 385). Another important factor to consider is that rewards or punishments administered in the event of results obtained during the production process. Understanding the rewards helps one to determine whether they motivate workers and in what way they do affect the performance. Consequently, members learn and develop personal strategies of avoiding punishment while increasing rewards (Huber 1991, p.99). Through learning and development, members get to identify useful mechanisms which to adopt to enhance survival of the organization. These mechanisms include disaster control, planning and budgeting.
Training and development and the weak selection process within an organization
Advanced studies have illustrated that training and development can be used to cure weak selection process within organizations. A careful review of literature conducted by (Bartel 1994, p. 421) to examine the benefits of training after selecting employees has revealed that this process is crucial in managing human resources. As a matter of fact, training does not only improve financial outcomes and performance but also influence performance intensity by human resource. In line with this, development in this context entails the irreversible improvement of knowledge and skills within the organization’s workforce ((Bartel 1994, p. 423). Just like training, development in the workplace has become increasingly important in boosting the performance of employees who enrol to work without appropriate skills.
In line with this, research has revealed that numerous organizations lack competent strategies for recruiting workers for employment. Consequently, they end up using weak selection criteria to recruit employees, a factor that calls for the need to establish training and development programs to boost their skills. Additionally, most organizations use a single strategy such as intelligence quotient criterion to select potential workers. Bueno and Ordoñez (2004, p. 531) acknowledge that single selection method is subject to numerous errors where training and development act as a buffer to overcome resultant weaknesses. Bassi and McMurrer (1998, p.42) assert that one of the notable benefits of overcoming weak selection through training and development is that they upgrade skills hence bring about positive change.
According to Lunenburg (2010, p.5), training is an essential tool that is used in an organization to equip employees with work-oriented skills. Most employees recruited to work in an organization experience shortage of skills despite the fact that they passed the recruitment test. Moreover, most of them gain certain skills through traditional training, and this makes their abilities not to comply with contemporary working conditions. It is deceitful for an organization to recruit workers on the merit of their academic credentials (Jemenez-Jemenez & Sanz-valle 2010, p. 414). This is due to the facts that, majority of them get to forget concepts learnt in schools and hence experience stagnation in their personal development. Furthermore, skills learnt for a long time gets obsolete, especially in a situation where they are not put into practice frequently.
Akgun et al. (2007, p. 509) write that some employees might possess basic skills but do not have adequate experience. In line with this, some organizations desperately recruit workers who are willing to work for them whereas those with competent skills opt to occupy high positions in other organization (Bassi & McMurrer 1998, p.42). Out of desperation, such organization are compelled to establish training and development programs which will help to sharpen worker’s skills, impact appropriate values and foster specialization (Bartel 1994, p. 423). In the event of recruiting workers to work in an organization, some of them lack the self-will to execute numerous activities due to individual differences. Training helps to liberate new employees from unworthy cultural assumptions and motivate them to participate in various activities (Bassi & McMurrer 1998, p.42). Organizations often face great pressure trying to change workers values, opinions and beliefs. This has largely been attributed by selecting workers top work on the firm without putting in place the ethical considerations (Bassi & McMurrer 1998, p.42). Definitely, training contributes towards holistic personal development and satisfaction within the working environment.
Bueno and Ordoñez (2004, p. 532) point out that there is no genuine selection criterion for recruiting employees in an organization. This is due to the fact that the notable strategies used do not consider the fact that human beings have got different abilities despite the similarities in their assessment results. Bartel (1994, p. 423) highlights that there are hidden abilities that can not be identified through the use of selection standards. For instance, there are aspects such as behaviour, ethics, mentality, morals and determinations that can not be evaluated through some standards (Akgun et al. 2007, p. 501). This fact proves that all modes of recruitment are weak, and hence intervention measures should be made to overcome impending bias. Unlike recruitment that is restricted to specific attributes, training and development processes are diverse, making it possible to address personal issues. Eventually, these processes increase worker’s confidence, esteem, self-control, understanding, motivation and interpersonal skills (Bassi & McMurrer 1998, p.41).
From a careful analysis of literature, most organizations select employees, basing on their fields of specialization. In this case, there are numerous posts such as leadership, management, operators and technicians (Raduan, Naresh & Ong 2009, p.9). Nevertheless, due to diverse changes in organizations, there is a need for an individual to have multiple skills in order to execute services in more than three posts. Therefore, training and developments enhance a multidimensional ability to perform diverse duties, a factor that has a lot of competitive advantages for organizational performance. Bueno and Ordoñez (2004, p. 533) admit that what makes people valuable and effective in an organization is their altitude which can be shaped positively through training. There are numerous challenges faced by organizations trying to assimilate workers with diverse mindsets. Luck of emotional maturity, morals, and confidence needs great training development extending far beyond concepts learnt in the classroom (Tharenou, Alan & Moore 2007, 259).
An empirical review of literature conducted by Bartel (1994, p. 424) revealed that the performance of an employee is as a result of his ability and motivation. Personal aptitude can only be elevated by training and developing available resources by the organization (Raduan, Naresh &Ong 2009, p.2). Organizations should develop the desires commitment and motivation to train and enhance development 0f workers. This will help them to cover up their weaknesses, especially in cases where recruitment carried out did not match with their skills. Bartel (1994, p. 425) notes that certain organizations are desperate for human resources, and this makes them obtain anyone who gets their way. This can be devastating and challenging in terms of performance management. Therefore, minor deficiencies and errors can be eradicated through training. Other than weak selection methods, there are other factors that contribute to poor performance (Raduan, Naresh &Ong 2009, p.2). Therefore, before employees embark on training and development processes, there is a need to diagnose these factors. Possible problems affecting performance include difficult task, low aptitude and lack of consistent improvement in an organization (Bueno & Ordoñez 2004, p. 533).
Methods in Improving Training and Development Programs within Companies
It must be noted that with the continued expansion of various companies into new frontier markets comes the potential for the company to face a variety of challenges to its current business model (Bishop 2011, p. 38). For example, some studies note that when companies expand into new markets, it is often the case that they do not do so alone due to a variety of rival corporations also seeking new opportunities within the same markets (Schwartz 2011, pp. 13-16). As a result, this creates the potential for any expanding company to lose many of its talented expatriate employees to local rivals (Schwartz 2011, pp. 13-16). Another factor that should be taken into consideration is the fact that expanding into new markets often entails managers and other employees having to deal with a variety of distinctly different business cultures and styles which may significantly differ from what they are normally used to (Brown 2010, p. 60). This would, of course, hamper operational efficiency due to the initial inability for company managers to effectively guide and instruct local employees due to a “gap” in business culture understanding (Brown 2010, p. 60).
Other such studies indicate that research and development into new ways of improving a company’s talent pool is one of the practices most often seen in technology-intensive enterprises (Weier 2011, pp. 94-95). This is due to the fact that technology has as of late been under a constantly accelerating level development and as a result has enabled new players to enter into markets whereas in the past distinct barriers to proper entry would have been present (Weier 2011, pp. 94-95). As such, failure to sufficiently innovate and develop human resources along with new technological trends and products can be thought of as a failure on the part of the managerial practices at a company since being able to anticipate trends and use them to either reach greater market penetration or keep the company relevant to consumers is a necessity in today’s technology-intensive market economy. First and foremost it must be noted that there are four characteristics that are in demand within a technology-oriented enterprise, namely: high market responsiveness, fast developments, low cost, and finally high levels of creativity, innovation and efficiency (Harris 2011, p. 44).
What must be understood though is that such characteristics are dependent upon the type of technical teams that are the backbone of the company wherein through the utilization of a variety of management practices a seamless integration of vertical and horizontal means of collaboration need to be implemented in order to create a stable organizational structure for proper operations and product development (Harris 2011, p. 44). This is where the concept of talent management enters the picture. Talent management can be described as the process by which a company develops an employee’s skills throughout their time within the company in order to take on a variety of job roles as well as to manage their progress up the corporate ladder through a variety of leadership roles (Keller 2009, p. 64).
This process also involves a reduction in employee “churn rates” which involves the retention of talent within the company in order to reduce costs associated with training new employees and ensuring that talented individuals do not go to potential rivals within the same industry (Keller 2009, p. 64). What you have to understand is that improving and retaining talent within any company is crucial for the success of a business due to way in which talented individuals are drivers for high performance and improved operational processes within a company. Oldroyd & Morris (2012) points out that it is not the quantity but rather the quality of a company’s workers that drives success no matter the type of business model or the popularity of a product (Oldroyd & Morris 2009, p. 23). It is based on this that various business development specialists such as Oldroyd & Morris (2012) indicate that it is crucial for any company that wishes to expand into different markets that their hiring and talent management processes are in line with long term views in relation to retaining employee rather than short term goals of merely keeping a position filled (Oldroyd & Morris 2009, p. 23).
By allowing a company’s hiring practices and talent management processes to be complacent, this can lead to serious detrimental effects on operational performance and result in increased costs related to having to fill positions over and over again as well as retrain the necessary individuals to fill them (Ruiz 2006, p. 1). With the expansion of Ernst & Young and Siemens into new markets comes the potential for various problems to crop up in reducing employee churn rates and ensuring standardization of performance across all levels of the company throughout its various locations. Present-day studies involving the expansion of technology-intensive companies into new locations lack a sufficient emphasis on the necessity of effective talent management strategies which this study will seek to rectify through the identification of perceived problems in current practices and the creation of recommendations to implement in order to create better corporate talent management practices across diverse international locations, in this case involving Ernst & Young and Siemens (Ruiz 2006, p. 1).
Employee Retention and Performance
When it comes to employee retention and performance, job satisfaction is the deciding factor behind such principles of corporate human resource development and as such should be examined from a multilevel perspective in order to ensure employees continue to perform adequately and stay longer with a company (Ananthan and Sudheendra 2011, pp. 120-125). There are many ways in which this can be accomplished, ranging from mentoring, continuous job training development and other such factors which contribute towards increased job satisfaction. Yet, it must be questioned which particular process is the most suitable for corporations and which is the most preferred by employees (Ananthan and Sudheendra 2011, pp. 120-125). As such, this section will conduct an investigation into the aforementioned processes which contribute to job satisfaction in order to determine which is the most effective in talent management practices. Before doing it is important to examine current industry knowledge involving the concept of motivation as well as negative present-day management practices in order to get a better idea of what is it that drives an employee to continue to stay at a particular company and to have an adequate level of performance.
The first interesting point from this section on motivation is the various tools utilized to encourage employees to steadfastly work towards a goal or feel more compelled to work harder. This can come in the form of reward programs, company policies or varying degrees of empowerment that makes a job a little more “valuable” to an employee so to speak (Bowes 2008, p. 13). This is an important factor to take into consideration for companies since such programs increase employee performance levels. One example of this seen in modern-day firms is the employee bonus program which rewards hard workers and those who fulfil certain standards of attendance (Bowes 2008, p. 13). Another interesting point brought up by Pail (2012) is the assumptions on what drives an employee to perform better (Paill 2012, pp. 140-157).
This comes in the form of varying models which emphasize that most individuals are goal direct, are driven towards intrinsic rewards and need such rewards in order to work better. Such models of behaviour are important facilitators in understanding employee behaviours and, as such, are important in the creation of new policies and strategies in boosting employee performance (Paill 2012, pp. 140-157). For example, when using such models of behaviour a company may employ a rewards program for efficiency and productivity in order to encourage all employees to work harder as a result (Paill 2012, pp. 140-157). Other studies have shown how motivation initiates, directs and sustains an employee’s performance to the job they are accomplishing (Kim 2012, pp. 257-279). When examining this particular aspect, it becomes obvious that all employees need some form of motivating factor in order to work harder; without this, there is no incentive to improve one’s performance. For example, if a company does not have any means of motivating its employees to work harder, it is unlikely that their performance will improve and thus is an ineffective method of talent management (Kim 2012, pp. 257-279).
The first point of interest in this particular section are aspects related to the “hidden costs” of doing business. The reason behind this is the fact that businesses do not operate within a vacuum and have to deal with intense competitive environment forces on an almost daily basis (Patel & Conklin 2012, pp. 205-235). As such in order to meet these challenges companies often have to retain employees by offering certain benefits while at the same time institute costly training practices in order to improve performance, these factors result in added costs for the company. For example, if a company wishes to expand into a new field of business to stay competitive, it would need to train some of its current employees (Patel & Conklin 2012, pp. 205-235). The second point of interest within this section is the use of power and resources in order to encourage unfair labour practices (Yamamoto 2011, pp. 3550-3564).
The fact is that some management styles unfairly use the situations of employees in order to derive every single ounce of performance out of them while at the same time paying them a mere pittance. Such practices are beneficial for the bottom-line of the company but are considered unethical since it is a form of abuse (Yamamoto 2011, pp. 3550-3564). One example of this can be seen in Foxconn (one of Apple’s major suppliers) and how they supposedly abuse their employees in China in order to get them to work more. The final point of interest in this section are instances where serious problems are overlooked in favour of having work continue as usual (Yamamoto 2011, pp. 3550-3564). This can come in the form of environmentally damaging practices or employee abuse. The reason this is important is due to the fact overlooking such factors is highly unethical and would reflect badly on the company if discovered.
For example, the recent scandal of bribery in Mexico involving Wal-Mart definitely reflects badly on the company (Ryan, 2012, pp. 43-46). What you have to understand is that all the negative factors indicated within this section are indicative of company management practices that actually result in adverse effects on a company’s talent pool (Ryan, 2012, pp. 43-46). For example, practices which involving making an employee work harder than they should employ ethically dubious methods of operation, as well as other similar factors, are actually detrimental to talent management practices since they either create a situation where employees are more likely to leave the company, or the company would develop employees that are distinctly unethical in their own method of working (Ryan, 2012, pp. 43-46). It is based on this that any examination of a company regarding its talent management practices should involve the manner in which they treat their workers and the nature of the ethical codes of conduct of the company. Ethically sound companies are able to retain workers more effective and develop better talent pools since such practices encourage employees to stay with the company due to the overall positive regard for the company’s practices.
Examining Methods of Increasing Job Satisfaction
Mentoring in the case of job satisfaction involves guiding an employee via either a team leader or an adjunct employee that is willing to “take them under their wing” so speak in order to help adjust to the various aspects of the job, teach them how to do it well and guide them as they advance (Sange & Srivasatava 2012, pp. 37-50). The advantage of this particular method is that it eliminates the dissatisfaction employees have with a job by enabling them to see “the bigger picture” and have them develop a development plan from which they can ascertain what they want out of their current job (Sange & Srivasatava 2012, pp. 37-50). It must be noted though that while this method is effective, it hinges on the fact that the mentor will actually have time to address and guide the concerns of the person that he/she is mentoring (Chiller & Crisp 2012, pp. 232-242). In instances where there is sporadic mentorship, what often occurs is that employees fall back into old habits and job dissatisfaction occurs as a direct result. What must be understood is that mentorship which is a benefit is not as effective as a process/program instilled by a company that creates the necessary self-motivated interested within an employee and as such should not be considered 100% effective. It must also be noted that due to the size of certain organizations mentoring is at times not feasible and as such is limited because of this (Chiller & Crisp 2012, pp. 232-242).
Continuous Training Development Programs
When it comes to continuous training development programs, it is interesting to note that researcher such as Fernández-Aráoz, Groysberg & Nohria (2011, pp. 76-83), indicate that by continuing to develop employees in order for them to accomplish multiple different tasks actually results in a greater degree of job satisfaction since it takes away factors related to repetitious actions that actually cause job dissatisfaction (Fernández-Aráoz, Groysberg & Nohria 2011, pp. 76-83). From the perspective of Fernández-Aráoz, Groysberg & Nohria (2011, pp. 76-83), an employee actually loses satisfaction with their job over time unless some degree of variability is included in order to make the job more interesting.
For example, various studies in psychology that have attempted to use economic theories as a means of explaining certain types of human behaviour state that a job can be construed as being similar to the concept of marginal utility wherein the more you consume a particular product, the more likely you will consume less of it later on (Grissom 2012, pp. 400-418). The same can be said for doing the same job over and over again wherein it will eventually reach a point where the marginal utility derived from doing it will be negative, thus resulting in job dissatisfaction. In order to avoid such an occurrence, it is recommended that continuous training development programs which allow employees to assume different job roles, as well as sufficiently, progress in their career are an optimum method for increasing job satisfaction since this enables them to “reset’ their marginal utility so to speak as they are placed into new roles (Grissom 2012, pp. 400-418). This creates continued interest, the desire to learn and improve, which in the end results in high degrees of job.
The present study will utilize a primarily qualitative research design to explore the impact of learning and development programs for employees have on organizational performance and how such processes can be utilized in order to create a better and more effective workforce. Furthermore, the researcher will also rely on such qualitative methods as questionnaires in order to examine the overall effectiveness and opinion of employees regarding the current practices involving learning and development within their respective organizations. Sekaran (2006) observed most qualitative studies are either descriptive or experimental.
The study will utilize a descriptive correlational approach because participants will be measured once. According to Sekaran, a questionnaire technique is used when the researcher is principally interested in descriptive, explanatory or exploratory appraisal, as is the case in this study. The justification for choosing a questionnaire approach for this particular study is grounded on the fact that participants will have the ability to respond to the data collection tool by way of self-report. Thus, this project will utilize a self-administered questionnaire schedule for purposes of data collection. An analysis of related literature will be used to compare the study findings with other research on the overall impact of learning and development programs for employees have on organizational performance and how such processes can be utilized in order to create a better and more effective workforce.
As mentioned earlier, aside from learning and development data, this study will utilize a set of questionnaires in order to examine the perspective of various employees at Ernst & Young and Siemens regarding the various methods of talent management utilized within their organization. This can consist on how it affects their ability to work, whether such processes creates more efficient and effective teams, does it boost their inherent motivation, does it factor into their decision to stay longer with the company, do such programs actually improve the way a company functions etc. It is based on this that the research questionnaire will be geared towards members of the aforementioned companies and will focus on issues that primarily affect organizational performance and employee development. Another factor that should be taken into consideration is the necessity to choose people who are more aware of the impact of learning and development programs and who take a more active part in this process. This can consist of HR personnel, managers, employees specializing in talent management etc. Cluster sampling will be particularly helpful for the purpose of this study. This approach will enable the researcher to find the respondents quickly and above all, safely.
Data Collection Process
Anderson (2004) notes that research that is performed in a rigorous manner can lead to more effective practices than decisions based mainly on intuition, personal preferences, or common sense. It is based on this that the researcher will utilize the views garnered through the questionnaires that will be distributed along with learning and development data in order to develop a sufficient platform from which effective and above all accurate conclusions can be developed. The data collection process will actually be quite straightforward; several weeks prior to leaving for various locations within London, the researcher will utilize the internet in order to contact Siemens as well as Ernst and Young.
The researcher will compose an introduction letter in order to inform the organization of the intent of the researcher and whether it would be possible to conduct a series of interviews based on the attached questionnaire in order to ascertain the impact of learning and development programs for employees on organizational performance. By asking permission prior to the data collection procedure, this ensures that the researcher will not waste time in having to contact the necessary organizations upon arriving and can immediately proceed in collecting the needed data. The questionnaires will be distributed individually to ensure its alignment with the aforementioned anonymity of the study results. It will also be necessary to assure the participants of the safe storage of information before the interview begins to encourage them to give genuine answers. It was determined by the researcher that responses will be more favourable if the questionnaire is given privately. This approach will mitigate accommodation costs, thus making the project more cost-effective.
Evaluating the Questionnaire Responses
Two methods may be used to score the test, raw score and relative. Both will be used for comparison in the study. The raw score method is a simple sum of the responses within each scale. This involves merely examining which responses seem similar to each other or which are widely divergent. The relative scoring method compares scales for relative contribution to the overall score. The relative proportion for each scale is found by dividing the individual mean score for the scale by the combined means for all scales. Thematic analysis will also be used to identify themes. Patton (2002) describes this type of analysis as inductive analysis and states that most qualitative analysis is inductive in the early phases when the researcher is trying to identify categories, patterns, and themes. As such, it is expected that by utilizing the process of reading and re-reading the data, emerging themes within the collected data sets can be identified. Fereda (2004) point out that thematic analysis can help the researcher to demonstrate rigour. Having other individuals review the transcripts will enable different individuals to form themes from the data (Freda 2004, p. 203).
Findings and Analysis
The data collection methods applied in the study acted as the main platform for dictating the viability of the findings. The data collection methods were developed in tandem with the nature of research orientation to enhance better harmony and progress. The study applied both the primary and the secondary data to not only assimilate the results but establish well-founded considerations for the achieved results.
Based on an examination of the relevant findings from the study, it was seen that training and development was a crucial process for the organization in order to become lean and perform efficiently. From the results of the study alone, it was seen that 98% of the total respondents unanimously agreed that training and development not only enhanced performance but also acted as a change agent in effectively managing change within an organization. This backs up the initial assumptions of this study regarding the correlation between training and improved company performance.
Moving forward, it has to be noted that a close correlation seems to be evident between management, training and development as well as the subsequent performance of employees within a company. The findings of the study reveal that an organization’s management team formed the key factor in enabling a company to implement the necessary training systems in order to properly accomplish their duties and establish high levels of performance within their respective companies. As indicated earlier, the study sought to reach to obtain much information from employers and employees as they formed a major platform in determining the effectiveness of training and development in an organization. Though all the respondents, as indicated, above are essential, this study gave special reference to the employees as they were directly involved with the execution of tasks both inside and outside an organization. Therefore, as indicated in the objectives, the study sought to determine the role of management in training and development as well as the application of policies and practices of a company.
|Benefit||Number of Responses||Proportion (%)|
|Brought customer satisfaction||165||21.9|
It is quite clear from the above illustration that enhanced -performance is considered as a key benefit that most of the companies in the U.K. undertaking training and development perceive as the most important as reflected by the answers of the respondents. This is followed by the fact that training boosts performance that culminates to customer satisfaction through enhanced service provision, which is considered by 21.9% of the respondents. Boosted output and change follow closely with 20.3% and 17.1% of the respondents, respectively. On the lower side, the unspecified benefits with 5.6% of the respondents are considered a greater benefit with enhanced relationship and socialization with 4.8% and 5.2% of the respondent, respectively.
What you have to understand is that it is actually quite difficult and complex to succinctly establish a correlation between training and its effect on employee development. There are far too many variances to take into consideration due to the inherent complexity of the issue. It was from this consideration that this study concentrated on the observable outcomes of the policies and practices. The end result was that managers interviewed within the study were quick to point out that if employees were provided with the proper tools, they in effect could do their jobs better and more efficiently. It was also evident from the findings on the impact of training and development that training limited resistance to work performance and boosted confidence among employees. About 70% indicated that some work processes required higher skills which were critical in boosting their abilities to perform effectively.
Such a facto was similarly noted in the study of by Kurt Lewin who expounded on the fact that organizational training and development of staff was just another part of organizational change for technology-intensive companies wherein developing staff who could “flow” with changes in the company’s business environment was just as important if not the most important factor when it comes creating a successful operational structure. It was also evident from a cross-section of the respondents that even though it was the role of an organization’s management team to facilitate the establishment of the correct training environment, it was necessary that employees put greater effort to ensure that an entire training process is holistic as they were important in the implementation of an organization’s policies. It was clear that organizational training and development needed to involve performance evaluation since this aided min identifying key areas of weaknesses and how they can be improved. Most respondents were of the view that the lack of effective training was due to the inability of management to evaluate employee performance, a consideration blamed on overwhelming market demand. They agreed that training and development after an evaluation was crucial in revealing key potential that has not been tapped. Besides, it equips an organization with a greater opportunity to organize employee training for greater efficiency in the highly competitive market.
This research was performed through the use of a Linkert 5 point scale in order to examine the various pieces of information that were provided by the respondents of the study. Such a method has been noted as an effective means of examining subjects general predisposition towards a particular orientation and as such can be considered an invaluable method of examination when combined with the general interviews that were also utilized within the study. It must be noted though that when examining any sets of data, it is important to determine the dependent and independent variables. In this particular case, the training demands of the workforce was chosen as the independent variable while the dependent variable was the various opinions of various managers and employees within the company regarding the overall use and effectiveness of employee training and development sessions.
Within the study, employee satisfaction regarding the overall method of training and their belief in the use of the training was also examined. This was in direct correlation to their general perception regarding the current operational performance of the company Vis-à-vis the level of training they received for their job. It is expected that through this section, the correlation between the quality of training and a company’s performance can be seen.
|Rating||Total Number of respondents|
Based on an examination of the data presented above, it can be seen that varying numbers of respondents within the study had different opinions regarding the correlation between training and operational performance. What the study did reveal, though was that a large percentage of the respondents involved in the study believed that there was a direct correlation between training and development and the operational performance of the company. Variables that were included in this study include the effectiveness of different levels of communication, overall organizational design, cooperation between workers and upper management as well as the ability of managers to actually apply the methods of training required by the company.
The study of Branine (2005, p. 459) adds to the data presented above by showing that the ability of an organization to progress within their given market is inherently dependent on the ability of workers within the organization itself to work as a team resulting in their ability to meet specific company goals and objectives. It is worth noting that these variables as they came out in the interviews and questionnaires, required inclusive harmony that not only took considerations of the directly visible outcome of the human resource roles but curved their intrinsic views of the same considerations to them. In this respect, these variables were highly effective in ensuring that the necessary cohesion between the observable results and the inner perception of the consumers and the workers. Based on the results of the study it can be seen that in order for management to derive the best “value” from training and development the most effective way of doing so would be through team-based operations. What you have to understand is that organizations the utilize teams are able to operate at a higher capacity due to the concept of shared responsibilities resulting in a better method of lesson internalization resulting in higher levels of commitment and innovation (Tung-Chun 2001, p. 440)
Mechanisms for training and development
Organization management icon Peter Senge famous models reflect the importance of training that boosts organizational performance and knowledge management. Selby-Lucas, Swart and Duncan (2003, p. 573) indicate that learning and development creates a mechanism that seeks to continuously assess, reflect, and establish methods of improvement in organizations. From the findings, it is clear that learning has gained greater acceptability institutions’ managements continue to adopt it for greater performance, organizational change and improved employee relationships. Aaberg et al. (2009, p. 19) highlight that organizations adopt training and development to continuously improving knowledge and innovation among workers.
Findings from various studies on the same notes that the process of training and development requires all stakeholders especially the top, middle-level management and employees at the lower levels to develop a keen understanding of its importance in an organization. This will enable them to evaluate an organizations performance levels and reflect on various strategies critical for drawing methods for improvement. According to various responses from findings, the reflection can be comparative or drawn from creativity to create new orientation in work performance. Heinrich (2000, p. 234) indicates that reflection and evaluations are very idealistic in that both practices are critical application in complex systems to ensure that room for improvement is created for all achievements, whether positive or negative. Systems approach model echoes that reflection and evaluation incorporate the needed performance improvement and emphasizes on change (Aaberg et al. 2009, p. 19).
Systems thinking characterize training and development as important processes through the use of various factors to assess and measure organizational performances. Besides, personal mastery and mental models point out that individual commitment is very critical towards progressive learning and development (Aaberg et al. 2009, p. 19). As noted in the study, learning and development in an organization need to emphasize on the need for personal mastery. This could because training in an organization is holistic and to be a sum of all stakeholders learning. It is imperative to note that management does not fully influence personal mastery, but it creates a culture that works towards influencing learning and development.
Besides, training is a process that requires sharing organizational visions and working in teams. This is critical in that it makes a learning organization to have a shared objective at all levels of application. Smith-Crowe, Burke and Landis (2003, p. 863) indicate that learning and development in an organization are developed when common visions have been developed as this easily nurture behaviours, values, and norms towards the need for improvement. Training and development of a workforce is also built on the belief that workers and employees learn better and faster in teams because they get the sense of security and identity with their colleagues compared to their senior management. The systems theory strongly supports this particular consideration as it notes that collaboration develops the need for learning. This reflects Peter Senge’s position that workers who have stronger ties with their colleagues are able to learn and develop their skills (Molina and Callahan 2009, p. 400).
The role of training and development change management
Change in organizations through training and development of a workforce is perhaps one of the realities that cannot be avoided in the fast dynamic world. However, questions on how effective training ha been used to effect change bin organizations remain to be answered. While this question formed the major basement of the study, it was evident from scholarly sources such as that by Goel, Rana and Rastogi (2010, p. 104) that the role of management in ensuring it trains its workforce to bring out the needed force to generate new ideas and bring workers aboard for better performances. At this point, the argument brings out the role of change agents and how they are trained and developed in establishing the mechanisms and strategies in an organization. Many organizations, especially those that cannot train its members, have greatly relied on external change agents to influence the progress of their organizations.
However, Molina and Callahan (2009, p. 400) and Selby-Lucas, Swart and Duncan (2003, p. 573) appear to disapprove the practice that involves the use of external change agents and calls for the introduction of new models of operations either to address a given problem or to create a roadmap or for higher profitability. As noted from the literature review and the study, external agents as the name suggests are outside forces, and their proposition should be rejected by the existing organizational culture. Training and development should be considered as crucial in imparting new skills to the existing human resources. This will be critical and will act as a foundation for forming internal change agents. Internal change agents, unlike the external change agents, have been very important in effecting changes as their propositions are easily accepted since employees easily identify with them. Kurt Lewin’s freezing and refreezing model highlights the very critical outline and depth that change application via the use of internal change agents need to adopt (Smith et al. 2003. P.31).
In the review of Kurt’s change management theory, Branine (2005, p. 459) explains that training creates a new understanding that dawns the members on their role in improving their organization as opposed to the consideration that it is only an employment unit. Therefore, a holistic force becomes evident as all departments float with new proposals either at the personal or as a team for improvement. Bryman (2008, p. 161) uses a metaphor to liken a ship sailing afloat towards its destination to an organization. In it, he indicates that the ship remains subject to major and minor unexpected disturbances that must be addressed for it to effectively reach its destination. From an organizational training perspective, it is clear that training and development are considered as the major tool that the management holds to indirectly to facilitate addressing thee disturbances. Particularly, the metaphor points at the proactive and diverse nature of the people in the management towards addressing the emergent disturbances.
Agreeably, the opportunity that training and development of human resources provide becomes an expanded platform that organizations use to generate more alternatives for addressing challenges. The metaphor echoes the ideas expressed by Smith et al. (2003. P.31) which indicate that training and development create the sense of continuous change as the ‘ship’ must be monitored at every instance to hasten its speed towards the destiny and improve the quality of products to colonize the market. Notably, the study reflected the fact that training impacts on an organizations’ culture in terms of effecting change. While this has been strongly debated and interpreted differently by different scholars, it is worth underscoring that training plays a critical role in changing an organization’s culture towards gaining skill, knowledge and enhancing relationships towards the achievement of main objectives. This position is also expressed by Romero et al. (2007, p. 311) who view training as an empowering tool which does not only boost the performance of workers but also facilitate the culture of involvement, consultation and integration in decision making.
Schniederjans, Schniederjans and Schniederjans (2009, p. 887) posit that training and development become incorporated when knowledge management is employed in an organization, and these influences change. Agreeably, and as reflected by the study, training and development is indeed a factor of enrichment for an organizational culture by building the needed autonomy that builds the demand for higher objectivity. Mary Hatch’s model of cultural dynamics contains very fundamental concepts of organizational culture, learning and development towards attainment of organizational success. The culture of an organization has comprised of key subcultures that run deep within the organization’s network. Therefore, training and development facilitates the development of change by introducing new beliefs, trends and models of communication work towards enhancing the overall value of the employees. Rodriguez-Ulloa and Paucar-Caceres (2005, p. 320) indicate that changing an organizational culture at any particular time might be very hard, but lauds Hatch’s model by noting embracing learning develops the ability of an organization to create change and its orientation with minimal resistance.
Respondents from the study were of the view that changing the culture of an organization presents a major setback to training and development. This bears much weight in the sense that many managers have not embraced the need to develop their staff after employing them. From the literature review, it was clear that there is a need to introduce new propositions to the human resources through training and development sessions by the human resources management to invoke a new approach to cultural outsets. Effecting change calls for an organization’s management to challenge employees on the need to embrace learning by providing the necessary platform for such changes. The use of teams and teamwork as a cultural organization factor should be used to achieve workforce development. Employees are known to easily adhere to teamwork ideas after realizing the related short and long term benefits. It is clear that training and development are essential in building a better organizational culture. However, this has been disputed by certain authors such as Singh and Sharma (2011, p. 120) and Cegarra-Navarro and Arcas-Lario (2011, p. 635) who indicate that while training is critical in creating a stronger working force, it can also limit the overall returns. In a more classical style, they argue that training is costly and may result in a workforce shifting to other departments or organizations that can pay well for their acquired skills.
Indeed, after training, most employees and managers expect rewards and salaries to move up irrespective of the organization status. Antonio et al. (2010, P. 115) are of the view that this may present a major challenge and could perhaps be the reason for the limited training of workers in organizations. The above argument links with the response from various respondents that training and development creates a high-level operating standard that creates competition with itself. Many organizations that do not wish to invest in the critical process of training and development seeks an equal force and outsources already trained workforce from other areas. The argument above, however true it seems to bear two major aspects of deficiencies. One such problem its failure to fully recognize the critical role played by training in developed employees towards improving profitability. Besides, it does not respect the main aim of training and development, which is to create a much needed competitive advantage over others in the market. Improving workers salaries and safeguarding their tenure after a training and development practice is part of the motivation for the highly valuable and skilled employees.
Training and organizational culture
It was noted through an examination of the relevant literature that of the main problems within a company was its organizational culture. The reason behind this is quite simple, as indicated by cultural theory the culture within a particular organization impacts the way in which managers train employees and as a result, defines the focus on their work and their ability to meet the specific organizational objective. It is based on this that various studies that have examined the organizational culture within a company have stated that in order to achieve efficient and effective operations it is important to implement positive learning cultures within a company since this encourages employees to learn, improve and do their job well.
An examination of the data from the study conducted by the researcher showed that they were particularly emphatic on the need for a culture that is based on the need for training and development for progress in processes that aid organizations in governing utilization, dissemination and creation of knowledge development. Further examination of this particular aspect through the literature review shows that this particular model of training helps employees by developing a feedback system that encourages training for the sake of the improvement and governing of knowledge. By doing so, this encourages people within the organization to move forward as a team due to the creation of what can only be defined as a “joint sense of identity” due to the way in which this particular model of training places a direct emphasis on joint action towards a particular goal. It must also be noted that this particular model of training enables employees to become more receptive rather than resistant to changes due to the concept of shared goals.
Transfer of knowledge through training
When going over the results of the study, it was seen that one of the most significant impacts of the process of training was the transfer of knowledge. As indicated by Çelep and Çetin (2005, p. 115), within their study, it was seen that training was an important component in the transfer of knowledge since through training the assimilation and application of skills were far more enhances as compared to the rudimentary adoption seen in cases where people were expected to incorporate the skills while on the job. It was also noted by Çelep and Çetin (2005, p. 115) that the effective transfer of knowledge through training actually resulted in a far higher degree of profitability for the company due to the higher ratios of performance displayed by the employees. It must be noted though that studies such as those by Evanschitzky et al. (2007, p. 265) indicate that one of the inherent problems in organizations at present is that they neglect to take into consideration the behavioural impact training has on employees.
As explained by Evanschitzky et al. (2007, p. 265) training can cause an employee to behave in a distinctly different manner especially when the transfer of knowledge occurs and as such this should be taken into consideration by organizations since such behaviours can definitely impact the overall productivity of the company. It must then be questioned that can come about should workers not be given proper training and inefficient methods of the transfer of knowledge occur. In such cases, the proliferation of incompetency, wasteful processes, and considerable consumer ire often results in the downfall of the company. This and the other aspects shown within the literature review reveal that through training an employee becomes better and more analytic in what they do result in better and improved methods of operation which result in company success through higher productivity rates and greater degrees of customer satisfaction.
Training and development impact on employee motivation
Before proceeding it must be noted that the process of training and development is not just a means of enabling an employee to do a job or to transfer knowledge, rather it is also a means by which they are given the confidence to actually perform well in their given task. For example, in the work of Ewest (2010, p. 137) it can be seen that employees who underwent proper methods of training and development within a sufficient positive organizational culture, actually became more motivated to work resulting in more creative ideas and a better perspective on how they can work harder to improve the company as a whole.
Through the utilization of Maslow’s theory of human needs, it was noted in the study of Gao, Li and Clarke (2008, p. 10) that through effective means of training and development employees were actually able to obtain greater levels of self-actualization in the form of respect, financial security and a better feeling of self-worth. These combine into a more positive feeling in doing their job, which, as a result, improves their overall level of performance. Other studies that have examined this such as those by Goel, Rana and Rastogi (2010, p. 104) state that another way in which training and development impacts employees is through the creation of a feeling of assimilation and shared goals wherein through the concept of working together as all employees become more motivated since it makes them feel like they are working towards something of significance and great worth.
The considerations that an organization forms to train and develop its staff for sustainability is one of the greatest advances since it determines the ability of that organization to ability to remain productive and relevant to both stakeholders and the market. As such, training and development is critical in facilitating top performance and organizational profitability. As they reviewed the literature, the current disconnect between organizational change and training and development calls for developing a clear link.
In summary, there is need to come up with an answer to the question that seeks to answer the question on whether or not employee performance arbitrate a positive relationship between learning and development activities and organizational performance. Several considerations have been highlighted in the paper, and which appreciates that training and development in management are critical not only in bringing change and curing for weak selection process within the organization, but also effective in boosting employees’ performance.
Conclusions and Recommendations
It is quite interesting to note that according to Akdere (2003, p. 416) training is “practice and drill” wherein employees are exposed to the “educational” and then the subsequent “practical” applications of what they are learning. Albahussain (2012, p. 105) also defines training as a method of education that is more often than not instructor-led and whose content is subsequently based on a form of intervention whose goal is oftentimes to implement a particular desired change in behaviour. Dobson and Tosh (2008, p. 69) attempt to build upon this by explaining that training is a planned and systematic method of development whose main goal is to transform or develop knowledge, skills and attitudes within employees in order to assist them through learning experiences to achieve what Dobson and Tosh (2008, p. 69) define as an “efficient and effective” level of performance in an activity or subsequent job.
What you have to understand is that training itself is a process which is implemented in order to enable a particular individual to utilize a certain set of skills within a particular situation. Development aimed training provides employees with knowledge and skills to perform their job more effectively (Garavan, Barnicle and Heraty 2003, p. 22). In a sense training, can be utilized as a means by which a company helps their employees understand what they have to do in order to obtain distinct corporate objectives as well as enables them to effectively and succinctly design, develop and implement plans of actions within the learning climate of that particular organization Lai (2012, p. 247) suggested that before the era of globalization the focus of the training was on individual employees and training methods commonly relied on teaching. You have to understand though that as time goes on various aspects related to training activities tends to become more complex, and as a result, learning-centric activities tend to become integrated with those that are teacher/instructor-led in order to better train employees.
Another factor that should be taken into consideration is that due to the high rate of globalization and economic expansion which characterizes the 20th century, more and more companies have changed in their size, scope and operational structure thus necessitate new and more sophisticated approaches towards training and development in order to meet the challenges brought on by such changes. McDowall and Fletcher (2004, p. 25) observed that in recent years many organizations recognized that in order to stay competitive in the rapidly changing environment of globalization they must utilize the knowledge and skills of their employees. Based on this, activities changed from a distinct training oriented approach to that of a learning approach. Such a change occurred due to current variances within the global economy which were originally manufacturing bases to one that is serviced based wherein the inherent skills, behaviours and overall competency of employees is valued over the ability of an individual to merely “work hard”. It is based on this that employers have been orienting themselves in what can only be defined as a “top-down” led approach towards training and instructing employees.
Maris Zernand-Vilson and Elenurm (2010, p.97) discusses that the ideology of individual learning occurs in all situations, whether planned or unplanned and not only in traditional but also in informal training patterns. From a certain perspective, it can be stated that the process of learning is far less “strict” as compared to that of coaching or mentoring. According to Walsh and Fisher (2005, p.32), Kolb introduced the concept of the learning cycle. The Kolb learning cycle consists of 4 distinct stages which consist of the following: stage one involves the learner starting off with a distinct experience which can be planned or accidental depending on whether the process occurs on the job or through a training session. Stage two consists of the employee observing and reflecting on his/her experiences that they had internalized during the first stage of the Kolb learning cycle. The third stage, on the other hand, can be considered a period from which the reflection is internalized, and a plan is developed in order to incorporate the reflection into its necessary commensurate task. Lastly, stage four consists of testing the principles and concepts that had been learnt and internalized through a process.
This process involves either repetition or trying them out in a variety of new situations resulting in the renewal of the cycle all over again. The responsibility of the fulfilment of the developmental training given in organizations takes place through the Kolb Learning Cycle (Walsh and Fisher 2005, p. 30). It must be noted though that in order to deliver the appropriate type of training needs to achieve the best results, it is often necessary to do so through a systematic approach since this results in a “levelling” system that enables a gradual transition thus resulting in better-understood processes which result in employees being able to do their jobs properly. The basic systematic Model of Training suggested by Walsh and Fisher (2005, p. 28) underlines the training cycle. Upon closer examination of the relevant text, it can be seen that the systematic training mode is considered to be one of the best and most significant models in employee training. The systematic training model can be defined as training undertaken on a planned basis as a result of applying a logical series of steps (Rohmetra and Easter-by Smith 2004, p. 72). The outcomes of training and these stages of the systematic model is a continuous process.
Off the job training is usually utilized in order to help orient employees to the various tasks and assignments that they are expected to do. In this particular case, this often involves group sessions wherein they are taught by an instructor regarding the various nuances of the job they are expected to do. When examining the concept of “on the job training,” it can be seen that it is primarily used when there is a subsequent need to rapidly mobilize a workforce due to expansion or sheer necessity due to the way in which technology and processes keep on rapidly changing and updating. Garavan, Barnicle and Heraty (2003, p. 22) observed that loopholes in development are caused by lack of preparation for the training sessions on the part of trainers, trainers agreed to train on ad hoc basis without predetermination of content or process, goals and objectives of the training were not developed, most of the times the chosen trainers lack the skills and ability to train but are technical experts within the area and most of the times formal training is not given to the trainers.
Based on the work of Dobson and Tosh (2008, p. 66), the most commonly used methods of training within companies today consists of coaching, mentoring and computer-based training. According to Dobson and Tosh (2008, p. 66), current changes in learning and training methods have been observed training programs by and for line managers have been observed as a current trend to explore areas like employee skills, technological management, economic influence and talent management of the employees. It must also be noted that as of late a distinct increase has been noted in the development of a variety of new training programs involving managers in aspects related to coaching, mentoring and CBT.
Coaching is an intervention where one person assists another to achieve their potential over an extended period (Albahussain 2012, P. 102). From the perspective of Albahussain (2012, p. 102), coaching can be considered as one of the essential factors behind employee development. In his work, Albahussain discussed that the process of training could be considered a way in which a manger helps to solve problems within the work place involving task management through direct discussions and guided activities. By doing so, this enables the creation of the personal action plans by employees resulting in a better and far more efficient way in which they can complete their assigned tasks. An examination of relevant literature on employee development reveals that training through coaching is considered as a means of developing a two-way relationship between a coach and an employee. According to McDowall and Fletcher (2004, p.11), coaching is a major concept of developmental training.
McDowall and Fletcher (2004, p.11) explained that when it comes to coaching it is often necessary for a distinct kind of positivism and various types of environmental factors within the workplace for it to actually work. McDowall and Fletcher elaborate on this by explaining that it was often the case that in situations wherein almost “dictatorial” control and directive management was utilized employees actually performed less amicably as compared to situations where management styles were less suppressive and focused more on positive encouragement rather than negative reinforcement. It is based on this that it can be stated that various businesses, organizations and financial institutions need to focus on the internal development of business culture and climate that is conducive towards proper coaching and actually encourages their managers to focus on the concept of themselves as coaches as well as their subsequent development of a variety of learning activities.
What you have to understand is that when problems/ mistakes occur during operation procedures, it is important to implement practices that place a greater emphasis on learning from such mistakes rather than outright punishing the offenders. The reason behind this is quite simple, by fostering a tactic of learning rather than forceful intimidation this encourages the development of the right kind of environment wherein employees and managers alike to encourage open communication and development which creates a far more cooperative organization structure since it makes employees feel like they are part of a family. Coaching by managers is reliable in the service sector. It is an important activity because, in the service sector, the main requirement for the work to be done is developing trust and rapport with the subordinate (Rohmetra and Easter-by Smith 2004, p. 74). They further discussed that one-to-one personalized learning (coaching) from managers is an effective technique that can transfer skills and knowledge to team members. 88 per cent of 100 organizations surveyed are using coaching by managers, and 74 per cent of organizations are planning to increase this practice (Rohmetra and Easter-by Smith 2004, p. 75).
Development is optimally attained through mentoring. This is a process which helps a person to handle significant transitions in responsibility or status (Walsh, K. & Fisher 2005, p.29). Lots of literature in management depicts mentoring as a classical way towards organizational development. In this form of training a relationship develops between a senior and junior employee. The process of mentoring delivers the organization’s goal and mission statements to the junior employees with a clear understanding of improving the employee’s fit within the organization. Mentoring focuses more on the employee’s attitude development. This form of training is useful at the management and the front level. In the mentoring process, the responsibility of learning is taken by the individual who is involved in the process. The mentor explains the procedures and insights and makes the learner understand the responsibility towards the set objectives; development of strategies for learning and the evaluating outcomes. Thus, this agreement between mentor and learner forms the strong bond between them.
After completing this entire research paper, I have to come to realize that training and development come hand in hand with employee retention and performance. The reason behind this is quite simple, employees who are bored with their jobs and consider it a form of drudgery are less likely to be passionate over what they do, would most like underperform and have a higher tendency to just leave the company for what they perceive as a better opportunity elsewhere. When it comes to employee retention and performance, job satisfaction is the deciding factor behind such principles of corporate human resource development and as such should be examined from a multilevel perspective in order to ensure employees continue to perform adequately and stay longer with the company. There are many ways in which this can be accomplished, ranging from new orientation, mentoring, continuous job training development and other such factors which contribute towards increased job satisfaction.
Yet, it must be questioned which particular process is the most suitable for corporations and which is the most preferred by employees. This paper has thus examined various aspects related to the impact of specific types of training and development programs and how they are generally perceived by employees. It is based on this that I can say with confidence that it can be utilized as a means by which companies can in effect implement new methods of employee training and retention thus resulting in better performance metrics for the company. What most companies fail to understand is that it is not just the inherent processes that are within a company that makes it greater, rather it is the very employees who strive and work for the company which enable it to become a success within its respective market. The sooner companies realize this, the better they will be able to reap the benefits of effective employee training.
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Appendix 1: training and development chart
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Start of Questionnaire
In your opinion are learning and development programs important for a company?
- Strongly Agree
- Not Sure
- Strongly Disagree
Do you believe that learning and development programs influence job satisfaction?
- Strongly Agree
- Not Sure
- Strongly Disagree
Based on your experience, have learning and development programs actually contributed to your performance at work?
- Strongly Agree
- Not Sure
- Strongly Disagree
Do strategies such as increases in salaries and longer break ours factor into better performance for employees?
- Strongly Agree
- Not Sure
- Strongly Disagree
Do you believe that learning and development programs would help to increase the operational performance of the company?
- Strongly Agree
- Not Sure
- Strongly Disagree
Based on your experience as an employee at your company, do you believe that creating better learning and development programs would help to create a better company?
- Strongly Agree
- Not Sure
- Strongly Disagree
Does your current organization place an emphasis on learning and development programs?
- Strongly Agree
- Not Sure
- Strongly Disagree
Have there been successful outcomes from the implementation of learning and development programs without your company?
- Strongly Agree
- Not Sure
- Strongly Disagree
Is operational performance within a company tied to the standards of learning and development through its HR department and talent managers?
- Strongly Agree
- Not Sure
- trongly Disagree
Do you think that your company will increase the amount and level of learning and development programs for employees?
- Strongly Agree
- Not Sure
- Strongly Disagree
Thank you for completing the questionnaire! Please stay a while; the facilitator of this session would like to ask a few pertinent questions regarding the current exercise and your opinions, Thank you!
Appendix 3: Questionnaire
- What effect do you think the training has on an organizations development program and employee performance?
- Can you attribute organizational performance to learning and development?
- How does employee performance arbitrate a positive relationship between learning and development activities and organizational performance?
- Can learning and development work as a change agent in managing change within the organization effectively?
- Do you find adopting training as a change strategy suitable for your company? Why?
- How much impact do you think training of staff has on the success of your business?
- What are the most important accomplishments you have achieved through training and development exercises?
- What do you think are the skills that workers in your organization need in order to enhance performance levels?
Appendix 4: Brief discussion of three questions in the questionnaires
What effect do you think the training has on an organizations development program and employee performance?
This question will seek to bring out the views of managers from different companies in India on the impacts of training on employee performance. The question is based on the assumption that all the managers identified in the sample are aware of the importance of training and development and its impacts on the performance of their respective organizations.
Can learning and development work as a change agent in managing change within the organization effectively?
This question will be very critical in the study in that it will seek to generate the perception of the employees and a sense establishing change mechanisms. It will be a critical test in linking the understanding of the measures being assimilated and their perceived affects. It will be a critical indicator of motivation levels for employees.
Can you attribute organizational performance to learning and development?
This question will be directed towards the management during their interview with the researcher and will seek to bring out the role of training on organizational performance as viewed from the management point of view. It will serve as a pointer towards cohesion of methods employed to address the effects and further bring out the relation between the management and employees.