The American society, especially teenagers and young adults, are obsessed with iPhone, according to a research that was recently released by (Yan, 2015). Many people often wait for the release of the latest models because of the improved features. Apple Inc. has done a lot to ensure that its latest models of iPhone have numerous applications that meet varying needs of its customers. However, a new concern is emerging over iPhone addiction among Hispanic adolescents. According to a report by Flick (2015), adolescents addicted to iPhone spend up to eight hours a day using it for one reason or another. They play games, chat with friends on social media, make calls, look for direction, purchase items on the e-market, and watch news using iPhone. Bae (2017) observe that the trend is worrying because these adolescents’ behavior is directly affected by the obsession with iPhone. Many schools have regulations that limit the use of phones during normal lessons. A few lessons may require the use of phones, especially in communication classes.
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Learners are only allowed to use the phone during such lessons. However, many adolescents cannot resist the temptation of using their phones. They end up breaking rules and regulations set by the school because of this addiction. Yan (2015) observes that iPhone addiction can be dangerous to adolescents who have acquired a driving license and those who drive without the license. They tend to drive while using their phone. The attention is often drawn to the phone than on the road. They end up making silly mistakes that may not only cost their lives but also that of other innocent road users. Bae (2017) notes that a significant number of accidents caused by adolescents are due to the use of phones while driving. In this paper, the researcher seeks to investigate the impact of iPhone addiction among Hispanic adolescents on their behavior and accident incidents. The researcher plans to use mixed research method in this study.
Significance of the Practice Problem
The love for iPhone is something that is common among the majority of Americans. The global society has come to appreciate the high value that this brand offers. However, recent studies show that it is slowly turning into addiction and the adolescents are the worst affected. Twenge (2017) argues that owning the latest model of iPhone is currently the new way of demonstrating one’s social class. These teenagers are taking it too far. In the modern society, having a Smartphone is important because of the emerging applications. However, iPhone addiction is becoming a major problem among the adolescents in the United States. These teenagers rarely have time to settle down and study because they are always on the phone.
Every little time they get is spent on the social media or chatting with friends. The addiction is now taking a dangerous turn as the adolescents start to embrace a bad habit of driving while on their phones. They believe they can easily perform both functions. What they fail to understand, as Jones-Smith (2014) explains, is that a mistake committed within a fraction of a second is what may cost many lives on the road. Some of the common road user mistakes that these teenagers commit while on the phone include failing to observe lane rule, over speeding, failing to observe road signs, and making wrong turns. The number of adolescents brought to hospitals with life-threatening injuries because of road accidents is on the rise. Evans (2016) also complains that iPhone addiction is one of the reasons why some Hispanic students fail to observe school rules and regulations. It is necessary to find ways of addressing this problem.
IPhone addiction among Hispanic adolescents is rapidly becoming a major health Problem (P) in the United States (Rayner& Bell, 2016). Statistics show that the use of phones while driving is currently one of the leading causes of accidents. Some of the adolescents end up with permanent disabilities from these accidents. The project focuses on developing an intervention (I) plan on how to deal with this problem. The intervention plan will be compared (C) with other alternative strategies proposed by other scholars on how to address this problem. The outcome (O) of this study will help address iPhone addiction among Hispanic adolescents. It is expected that the study will have the desired impact on the focus group within the next one year (T). The Picot can be summarized as below:
P: Problem of iPhone addiction among Hispanic adolescents.
I: Intervention focuses on promoting responsible use of iPhone among the target group.
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C: The researcher will compare the proposed intervention plan with other existing plans.
O: The outcome will promote responsible use of iPhone among Hispanic adolescents.
The following research question will help in investigating the problem to find a proper solution.
How does the iPhone addiction among Hispanic adolescents when driving Impact the accidents incidence and their behavior?
Rogers’ person-centered therapy, also known as person-centered psychology, is the kind of counseling that Hispanic adolescents addicted to iPhone will need to address their problem. Developed in the 1980s, this theory was meant to help nurses to care for patients with addiction problems (Flick, 2015). It was primarily developed for patients with drug addiction problems, but it has evolved and is currently used to manage different forms of addiction. It focuses on enabling the patients to self-actualize without necessarily using the items they are addicted to (Rayner& Bell, 2016). Most of the Hispanic adolescents addicted to iPhone desire to demonstrate their social class to their peers. The problem is that in so doing, they get so obsessed with this gadget that it becomes a threat to their health and behavior. When using this model, the goal of the nurse will be to convince the affected adolescent that they can lead normal and satisfying lives without heavily relying on the iPhone (Jones-Smith, 2014). The goal may not necessarily be to dissuade them from using iPhone, but to convince them that they have to remain responsible when using the gadget. To achieve success when using this model of counseling, the following conditions should be met.
Therapist-client psychological contact
The first condition is the need to develop a close relationship between the therapist and the client. When counseling these adolescents, the therapist should make an effort to create an understanding environment. The perception of the therapist towards the client should be positive. The client should also have a positive view towards the therapist. As Swingle (2016) suggests, there should be a mutual understanding that the process seeks to find a solution to the existing problem.
The model works well when there is incongruence between the level of awareness of the patient and his or her experience. The aim is to provide information that the patient is lacking with the hope that after gaining the new knowledge, there will be a behavioral change. Adolescents know that using their phones while driving may expose them and other road users to serious accidents. However, most of them have never experienced such incidences hence they take the warning with lack of seriousness (Evans, 2016). The counselor can take the opportunity to walk with these clients in the wards to see for themselves the kind of pain that accident victims go through. They will also see how others are physically incapacitated through such accidents. They will learn that making silly mistakes while using the road can be very costly.
Therapist congruence or genuineness
It is important to ensure that the therapist is genuine in the relationship. In most of the cases, counseling fails to realize the desired outcome because of lack of congruence among the therapist. There should be a genuine concern on the side of the counselor. The therapist should remain committed to finding a lasting solution to the problem (Rayner& Bell, 2016). It means that this medical officer will take time to listen to the issues that drive adolescents to be addicted to the iPhone so that they can find a lasting solution.
Therapist unconditional positive regard
Personal judgment on the side of the therapist may break down the communication process and the ability to find a meaningful solution. In a case such as the one this study is focuses on, a therapist may have a feeling that these teenagers are driven by peer pressure and as such it may not be easy to help them when they are handled individually. However, Swingle (2016) advises that changing ways of a single adolescent may have a major impact on his or her colleagues because of the peer pressure. Maintaining an unconditional positive regard will ensure that each client is treated uniquely based on issues that are identified through counseling.
Therapist empathic understanding
The counselor should demonstrate empathic understanding of the condition of the patient. The therapist should show understanding but in a way that seeks to find a solution (Evans, 2016). A teenager may complain about the difficulty of spending most of the time without their phones. However, they should be reminded that they have to remain responsible by using it only when it is necessary.
This model works well when the client feels that the therapists understand the condition and is committed to finding a solution. When the perception of the client towards the counselor is negative, finding a lasting answer to the issue may remain elusive. Evans (2016) explains that in many cases the perception of the client is defined by the actions and utterances of the therapist. The physical impression and socio-cultural beliefs may affect a client’s perception towards the therapist, but they can be addressed soon after starting the session. The more the client feels that their counselor is determined to help, the more the patient will develop a positive attitude. Meeting these conditions will help nurses who are keen on helping Hispanic adolescents to overcome the problem of iPhone addiction.
Synthesis of the Literature
Objective of the Literature Review
It is important to start this section by explaining the objective that should be achieved by the end of this literature review. According to Haug et al. (2015), literature review plays a significant role in identifying what other scholars have found out in a given field. It helps in avoiding cases of repetition when investigating a given issue. The purpose of this section is to offer an overview of literature that has been published in this field of research. The review will help to identify areas of prior scholarship. It will facilitate a description of the relationship of each of the sources selected for the study. It is important to note that when investigating an issue of public interest, views may vary. Understanding the variation may facilitate gathering of a clear picture of the issue being investigated. The investigation will help point the way forward by proposing strategies that can be used to address the identified problem.
Overview of the Subject under Consideration
IPhone addiction among Hispanic adolescents is an emerging health problem because of the increasing incidences of road accidents caused by these teenagers on American roads. According to Twenge (2017), iPhone is the most popular Smartphone not only in the United States but also in the global market. However, the love for this phone is becoming a problem in the country. Teenagers are now using this type of phone to demonstrate their class. IPhone addiction among Hispanic teenagers is largely caused by peer pressure. It may be true that the value offered by iPhone is superior to any other phone in the country, but the real reason why many adolescents are keen on owning one is that they want to pass a message to their peers. Owning it gives them a sense of belonging. They feel that by having the latest model of iPhone, they are winning admiration of their peers. Jones-Smith (2014) argues that most of the services that these teenagers get from their iPhone can be accessed using other brands such as Samsung. However, the society has developed deep trust towards iPhone and convincing these teenagers to use alternatives may not be easy. It is turning into a form of identity.
Having an iPhone is not a medical problem as long as the gadget is acquired through legal means and then used responsibly. However, that is often not the case among these teenagers. One these gadgets are purchased, the adolescent find it difficult concentrating on other responsibilities. They use the phone to access various entertainment sites. They also chat with their colleagues most of the time. A report by Evans (2016) show that majority of teenagers who own iPhone use it on their way to and from school, when at home, in-between lessons, and sometimes when teachers are in class. They not only enjoy the entertainment available through these phones but are also keen on showing it off to their colleagues. These students rarely have time to address their assignments. They spend so much time on their phone that other activities become irrelevant. The obsession that they develop has serious consequences on the health and behavior of these students.
Excessive use of Smartphone has serious health consequences that should be taken seriously. According to Rayner and Bell (2016), “Smartphone screens light up the same area of the brain as cannabis, and the rewards pathways mediated by dopamine respond to screens in a very similar way to opioids.” (p. 45). It means that the manner in which a person gets addicted to cannabis is the same way that he or she will be addicted to the use of Smartphone. The only problem is that the society is highly sensitized about dangers of cannabis, but not Smartphone. When one is in the process of getting addicted, many do not consider it a serious problem. It is often ignored as a social issue that can easily be overcome. However, Haiis (2014) explains that overcoming such addiction can be a very challenging experience. These teenagers often feel that they cannot survive without these phones. In case they forget to carry it when going to school, they prefer going back home for the phone and be late for their classes than stay a whole day without using the gadget. When it is lost, they will give the parents or guardians a lot of pressure to purchase a new one for them.
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Studies already exist which show that excessive use of Smartphone has serious health consequences. Obesity is one of the obvious consequences of addiction to iPhone. People addicted to Smartphone have to spend most of their time seated (Davies & Eynon, 2013). They avoid any active physical activities because that would make it impossible to chat with friends or watch favorite programs. Immediately after school, these teenagers would rush to their bedrooms where they spend most of their evenings with very minimal physical activities. They also prefer having snacks as they get entertained. Such individual cannot avoid the problem of being overweight. The reduced physical activity means that fat in the body is not burned into energy.
The situation is worsened by intake of snacks between meals. Yan (2015) explains that in the past, parents were comfortable with this new trend. The fact that they would remain indoors instead of going out where they may be exposed to various dangers was satisfying to many parents. However, it is turning out that limited physical activities that is characterized with the use of the iPhone exposes serious medical problems. Swingle (2016) explains that obesity is the genesis of numerous health problems. Coronary diseases are directly attributed to body weight. As one gains more weight, the blood vessels are narrowed. Some of them get blocked completely (Flick, 2015). Such individuals can suffer heart attack or heart failure if proper measures are not taken early enough to deal with the issue. Studies also suggest that stroke is linked to excessive body fat.
Spending a lot of time on concentrated light that come from the phones affects the eye. Many people addicted to iPhone or any other Smartphone often complain of eye irritation. Others are forced to use glasses to regulate the light. Some of the effects of Smartphone to the brain are yet to be discovered. A section of the American society has already partitioned Apple Inc. to sponsor a research that will investigate consequences of excessive use of iPhone to the brain (Bae, 2017). There is a feeling among a section of medical practitioners that excessive use of Smartphone may have mental impact on adolescents. At this stage when the brain is still in active developmental stage, some doctors are worried that spending so long on the screen may have serious consequences.
Addiction to iPhone has socio-economic consequences that not only affect the teenagers but also their family members. An iPhone is currently the most expensive Smartphone in the market. If a parent has to replace the phone every time a new model is released, it can have serious negative impact on the family (Jones-Smith, 2014). Whenever the phone is lost, the parent or guardian may be forced to replace it. It is unfortunate that most of these teenagers get socially affected after having these phones. Flick (2015) explains that once an adolescent has an iPhone, most of the time will be spent on social media and entertainment sites. They rarely have time to help in household chores. Cases of indiscipline start to arise because they would rather have their time chatting with friends than doing assignments given to them by the parents or guardians. It gets worse when these adolescents try to multitask when driving. They will try to respond to a message send by a friend or watch a movie clip. Their attention will be impaired, making it easy for them to make small but dangerous mistakes while on the road. A report by Rayner and Bell (2016) show that many accidents are often blamed on people who use mobile devices while driving.
IPhone exposes the adolescents to a world where they are very vulnerable because of their young age. They access so many materials, some of which are not meant for their consumption. Some sites encourage practices that are very dangerous. Swingle (2016) explains that “adolescent brains are more vulnerable to risk-taking, so the emotion centers of the brain drive behavior more than the future planning centers of the brain”(p. 56). They will easily try what they learn on social media or various online sites. The most unfortunate thing is that these events often happen without the knowledge of their parents. They get lured into dangerous behavior by criminals who have sinister motives. Some of the parents often come to know about when it is too late to help them. These are some of the reasons why many parents are now keen on regulating the use of Smartphone by their teenage children.
Scholars in the health sciences have warned against the excessive use of Smartphone by adolescents. Their arguments have been supported by various studies conducted by the government which outline numerous dangers posed by an obsession with iPhone. However, some scholars are completely opposed to such arguments. According to Rayner and Bell (2016), it is almost impossible and unfair to deny teenagers opportunity to use Smartphone in the modern society. Online applications available on phone and personal computers are redefining the world today. In the past, the brick-and-mortar system of business was common. However, that is changing. In fact, many doctors are currently offering emergency care with the help of Smartphone.
When one suffers a heart attack or stroke, doctors can provide guideline to the family members on what to do as they wait for the medical team to arrive (Jones-Smith, 2014). Their argument is that by allowing these teenagers to use the Smartphone, they get empowered. The knowledge they gain may be instrumental in cases of emergency. Learning is also making a slow shift from the traditional model when a teacher had to be physically present to a new era where assistive technologies are used. In fact, online teaching is becoming common in developed economies around the world. Flick (2015) is opposed to the idea of limiting the usage of iPhone among teenagers, arguing that the main focus should be on how to make them use these gadgets responsibly.
Discussion of the Distinctiveness of Sources and Similarities with the Others
Scholars opposed to the idea of limiting the use of iPhone among Hispanic adolescent believe that the society is moving towards technology-based applications. Smartphone and personal computers are defining communication in the modern era. Trying to discourage teenagers from using these technologies can be counterproductive. They will rely on these gadgets more than the current generation when they become adults. Despite the opposing views that these scholars have, it is evident that they both share a number of similarities in terms of what they try to achieve. One commonality is the need to be responsible when using these gadgets.
IPhone addiction is a social problem that is becoming a major health concern in the United States. The study is meant to promote responsible use of iPhones among Hispanic adolescents. It is expected that cases of accident caused by driving while using iPhones will reduce. It is also expected that the targeted youths will not allow iPhone use to have a negative effect on their behavior.
Describe the Design
Defining research design is one of the important tasks expected of a researcher when developing a research proposal (Bae, 2017). It should always be developed based on the research objectives. The design has to facilitate effective response to the research question. In this study, the goal is to explain iPhone addiction among Hispanic adolescents. The topic is less explored and finding the literature that specifically addresses this issue will be challenging, as already determined in the preliminary review of the literature. It means that this study will need to discuss the topic both quantitatively and qualitatively. Other than explaining the nature of the problem, it will be important to determine its prevalence among the targeted group. As such, the researcher believes that mixed research methods will be needed in the study. Data collected from the respondents will need to be analyzed quantitatively to determine the level of prevalence of iPhone addiction among Hispanic adolescent. Qualitative analysis will be conducted to explain the cause and effect of this issue and possible ways of addressing the research problem.
Identification of the Variable
It is necessary to identify relevant variables in this study. The primary (dependent variable) under investigation is the problem of iPhone addiction among Hispanic adolescents. The independent variables will be causes that lead to the existence of this problem. One of the main independent variables is peer pressure. The adolescents’ desire to be accepted by their colleagues creates the need to own an iPhone. Technological change in the field of communication is another variable. Unlike in the past when landline phones were used, the modern society heavily relies on the use of mobile phones (Haug et al. 2015). IPhone only happened to be the best of all the phones which are currently in the market. Parental demand is another factor that motivates some teenagers to own an iPhone. Some parents are keen on demonstrating their family’s social status. One of the best ways of doing so is to own an iPhone. In this case, instead of the pressure coming from the adolescent, it comes from the parent.
The Reliability and Validity of the Instrument
The researcher has chosen mixed method as the appropriate design that will be used in this study. It means that some of the questions will have to be structured while others will be unstructured. Structured questions will be used to collect data that will be analyzed quantitatively. On the other hand, unstructured (open-ended) questions will be used to collect data that will be analyzed qualitatively. As Bae (2017), suggests, it is important to ensure that there is consistency in data collection process. That can be achieved by having an instrument that will standardize data collected from the participants. That is why the researcher will use a questionnaire to collect data from the sampled respondents. The questionnaire has already been developed based on the set objectives, primary research questions, and the preliminary literature review that has already been conducted. The document is attached at the appendix of this research proposal. When developing the instrument of data collection, the researcher was keen on ensuring that all the important information of the respondents will be captured. As such, the document was divided into three sections.
The first part of the document will capture demographical information of the respondents. It will be possible to determine whether the respondent is a teacher, a parent, or a student. It will also help in determining their race. The second part of the document will focus on determining the academic qualification of the participants. Bae (2017) explains that the level of one’s education often define the authority that they have in a given field. For instance, teachers with advanced education in counseling and psychology will not only talk out of their experience but also the knowledge that they have gained. The last section of the instrument will focus on specific the issue under investigation. Validity of the instrument will be assured by ensuring that it captures all the necessary data desired from the respondents. Its reliability will be enhanced by ensuring that language used is respectful and motives the participants to answer all questions.
The Population and the Sample
Data will be collected from Hispanic adolescent students, teachers, and parents. The limited time available for the study makes it necessary to have a manageable sample in the study. The researcher targets a sample population of 100 participants. It will be necessary to have 50 students, 25 parents, and 25 teachers taking part in the process of data collection. Judgmental sampling (non-probability) method will be used to select participants in each of the three categories.
Observing ethical concerns is critical when conducting research. A researcher has a responsibility to be socially responsible to the participants in a given study. This study focuses on Hispanic adolescents, some of which are yet to reach the consenting age. It will be necessary to get their views on this issue to understand what motivates them to own and regularly use Smartphone. It is ethically required of the researcher to contact the administration of the schools targeted for the study. The responsible teachers must approve of the interview. Sometimes it may be necessary to conduct the interview in front of an adult. The administrator may recommend that the concerned parents be contacted before interviewing their children. It will be necessary to observe all these guidelines. To make the work easy, for every child selected to participate in the study, the parent and class teacher will also be part of the participants. It will make the process transparent and parents will understand the goal of the study. All the respondents will be briefed, as outlined in the IRB criteria, and all their questions answered before they can start their participation in the study. The identity of all respondents will be protected as that is also part of protecting their rights. The outcome of the study may be shared with these participants if it is considered necessary. As an academic study, the researcher will observe all the rules set by the university regarding plagiarism and timely completion of the report.
Project Evaluation Results
One of the most important stages in a research is the analysis of the collected data. Once information is gathered from the participants, it is necessary to process it so that it can make sense in respect to the research objective. As explained above, the most appropriate research design for this study will be mixed research method. According to Bae (2017), mixed method of analyzing primary data may be demanding. However, it helps in providing a comprehensive understanding of the issue under investigation. It requires a researcher to answer the question about why and how a given phenomenon occurred or is occurring in a given manner. It means that data will be analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative method will be conducted using SPSS (statistical method for social scientists) excel spreadsheet. Collected data will be coded and entered into the spreadsheet for analysis purposes. Quantitative methods will be used to explain the relationship between the variables. It will facilitate analysis of the magnitude of the problem.
The researcher will be able to estimate the number of Hispanic adolescents who are affected by the problem. It will also be possible to determine if the affected group considers iPhone addiction as a serious problem that may have devastating consequences. Qualitative analysis will enable the researcher to identify causes of the problem. Respondents will be requested to explain what they believe are the primary causes of iPhone addiction. When drafting solutions to this problem, it will be necessary to define the stakeholders who should be involved and the roles they should play in the process (Bae, 2017). Qualitative analysis will facilitate determination of the individuals who should be involved in addressing the problem. Allowing participants to answer questions in their own words may be demanding. However, it helps in having a clear picture of the issue under investigation.
Discussion and Implications for Nursing and Healthcare
The findings of this study will make significant contributions to this field of research and to the nursing practice. According to Haiis (2014), it is important to find out specific groups of people who are susceptible to an addiction of iPhone to address the increasing cases of road accidents. This study focuses on one section of the society, the adolescent Hispanics. The research will explain the prevalence of the problem among this people, the cause of the addiction, and impact on these teenagers and other members of the American society. This study will advance nursing practice in the country. As Davies and Eynon (2013) observe, nurses’ role goes beyond offering care to patients in hospitals. They are also expected to play a critical role in awareness creation in the society. In this case, they will help in promoting awareness about dangers of driving while using electronic gadgets. Nurses often share the pain with their patients emotionally when offering care. As Swingle (2016) notes, it is painful to see someone permanently condemned to a wheelchair because of reckless driving. Given the opportunity, they can share the experiences they have had caring for such patients. This research will offer them the chance to understand the nature and magnitude of this problem so that they can provide informed advice to the affected group.
Plans for Dissemination
The goal of the study is to reach out to the Hispanic adolescents and encourage them to use their iPhones responsibly. The dissemination of information obtained in the study will be done in two ways. First, a PowerPoint presentation will be developed to help educate the target group about dangers of iPhone addiction. They will be reminded that using iPhones while driving can cause fatal accidents. The same information will be passed to the focus group using posters that will be placed strategically throughout the campus.
Summary and Conclusion
The intention of this paper is to investigate the problem of iPhone addiction among Hispanic adolescents and propose ways of addressing the problem. The researcher has made the first achievement by collecting secondary data from books and reliable journals. It was revealed that iPhone addiction is becoming a serious problem that poses a serious threat not only to the Hispanic adolescents but also members of the public.
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