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Science and Technology in Shaping of the Modern World


The impact of science and technology in the modern world can be viewed from two perspectives. Firstly, the world has largely benefited in various ways through advancements that have added value to life.

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On the other hand, advancements in science and technology have negative the y affected the world by promoting terrorism, which has become a global security scourge. This essay focuses on how science and technology have shaped the modern world. In this regard, the paper will explore some of the historical events, which prove the impact of these advancements.

Scientific Revolution

In general, science refers to the systematic study of how the physical and natural world operates through experiments and observations. Through science, an array of discoveries have been made, most of which have shaped the modern world.

On the other hand, technology seeks to apply scientific knowledge, for the purpose of establishing practical results (Hepp 106). It, therefore, follows that the ability of human beings to conceptualize and apply ideas is what has led to massive developments in the world today. Nonetheless, the negative impact of this ability cannot be overlooked.

Discoveries that were made by ancient scientists between 1550 and 1700 marked a major stage in human history and the application of scientific ideas in the real world (Temin 63). This period, which is commonly referred to as the scientific revolution, saw the world attain another level of advancement. For instance, Nicholas Copernicus explored the cosmos position and lived between 1473 and 1543.

Another important person who immensely contributed to the scientific world was Isaac Newton, who did elaborate and conclusive discoveries about the laws of gravity, focusing on universal laws and the mechanical universe (Hepp 107). These early discoveries laid a solid foundation for other inventions that revolutionized the world.

Importantly, the introduction of mandatory education and the contributions of Charles Darwin in discovering the origin of a man affected the world. Such contributions made the world to appreciate the role of science and technology and the need of having an educated workforce in the world (Felipe 530).

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Science and technology also led to the industrial revolution, which was mainly based on the practical application of scientific knowledge into the world of manufacturing.

These applications allowed the use of machines in the early 1700s to promote massive production of industrial products. It is worth noting that this revolution took place in Britain because of the wealth that was being generated from her colonies and the desire for technological exploration (Temin 64). This led to transportation revolution that took place after 1750.

Before this time, the transport was largely by water since land transportation was considered to be slow and expensive. It was during this time that human and animal transportation was at its peak even though it was not effective. These difficulties created the need to develop transportation. The introduction of the steam railway in 1825 put Britain ahead in terms of improving transportation in the world (Hepp 116)

The discovery of electricity in early 1900s was also a milestone in advancing science and technology. Electricity became a major element in manufacturing as most of the firms heavily relied on it. Additionally, other sectors like transportation and communication were equally developed using electricity. Unlike steam, electricity has remained efficient, with numerous advantages (Felipe 778).

Today, electricity is an economic pillar in the world. It can be transmitted to various destinations, using simple power cables. As a result, electricity has contributed to the realization of a centralized society. In essence, people can be served with electricity regardless of their location.

Furthermore, the development of an industrialized society has promoted high food production to meet the needs of the world population (Temin 65). Unlike when food was a luxury, reserved for the rich in society, these scientific and technological advancements have provided solutions to food shortage and starvation.

While industrialization has positively shaped the world, it is paramount to note that there are several negative effects of the industrial revolution, which continue to haunt the modern world. For instance, the world is threatened by environmental pollution, which has become a major menace to people and governments (Temin 70).

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Through industrial processes, gases and other waste products are emitted into the environment, leading to air, water, and soil pollution. Importantly, greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide have led to global warming, emanating from the destruction of the ozone layer, which shields the world from being hit by dangerous rays.


Science and technology have also shaped how the world solves conflicts. From World War I to cyber crimes, technology has transformed warfare in the world. This is based on the type of weapons used by different countries to protect citizens from external aggression. Unlike ancient wars that employed crude weapons such as spears, modern technology allows the use of atomic bombs and drones.

These have significantly shaped the world in terms of warfare. Nevertheless, most of these technologies have been developed for a long period. During the Second World War, most nations exploited advanced warfare tactics.

On the other hand, the advancements made warfare to be fatal than before. Today, there is a high risk of civilians losing lives whenever a country makes an attack. In 2006, Israel’s attack on Lebanon became unpopular as a result of a higher number of civilians who died as compared to the combatants.

Atomic bombs have also been used as a result of scientific and technological advancements. In 1945, the United States hit Japan with two atomic bombs, causing massive deaths of civilians and destruction of property. Some of the effects of the two atomic bombs are still felt today (Creveld 312).

For years, several countries have ventured in the development of weapons of mass destruction. The development of nuclear weapons by countries like Iran has created conflicts among world leaders, who argue that such developments may lead to massive loss of lives (Hepp 125).

Information Technology

In discussing the impact of technology in the modern world, it is equally important to focus on how the internet, promotes terrorism. In recent years, the world has registered a surge in the number of terrorism websites being developed. By the year 2006, there were more than five thousand sites that were linked to advancing terror activities (Jacobson 353).

Of great concern is the fact most terrorists use the internet to spread propaganda and recruit members. Due to the easy connectivity enhanced by the use of the internet, the recruits can be drawn from any part of the world (Dienel 140). Through terror websites, one can spread speeches, training, and manuals on how to carry out terror activities.

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It is also easy to misinform the world and spread rumors through the internet. In fact, the internet has become the simplest channel of disseminating information from one person to others worldwide. It also helps terror groups to gather relevant data, which aids them to carry out attacks. A good example is the Al-Qaeda, which has intensively used the internet to advance its mission.

Science and technology have also promoted advancement in information and communication. It is easier to share and access information as compared to decades ago. Modern methods of communication have been developed through the use of the internet and mobile phones (Dienel 140).

It is obvious that growth in the communication industry has helped the world economy to grow tremendously. In most sectors, like education and business, the internet is being used to improve organizational efficiency.

The internet is also used in marketing, where organizations advertise their products and services online to reach a range of customers worldwide. Unlike other forms of advertising, online advertising is considered to be cheap and more convenient, since most people around the world have access to the internet.

Mobile phones have also enhanced communication throughout the world (Gray and Head 396). Unlike in ancient days when the transfer of information was a challenge, mobile phones connect people in a more simplified manner. The computer age has also shaped the world in a range of ways. Coupled with the internet and other advancements, computers promote efficiency in office management and data automation (Mantel 1).


Scientific and technological advancements have significantly transformed the world. Throughout history, the world has witnessed an array of scientific and technological developments. From the industrial revolution to the internet, there are countless ways in which the world has changed. Nevertheless, some of the advancements have affected the world negatively in terms of weaponry and terrorism.

Works Cited

Creveld, Martin. Technology and War: From 2000 B.C. to the Present. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2010. Print.

Dienel, Hans-Liudger. Terrorism and the internet. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2010. Print.

Felipe, Fernandez-Armesto. The World: A Brief History Combined Volume. New York: Apprentice Hall, 2010. Print.

Gray, David, and Albon Head. “The Importance Of The Internet To The Post-Modern Terrorist And Its Role As A Form Of Safe Haven.” European Journal Of Scientific Research 25.3 (2009): 396-404. Print.

Hepp, John. “Historical Foundations of the Modern World.” Wilkes University, 2012. Web. 3 Apr. 2013. <>.

Jacobson, Michael. “Terrorist Financing and the Internet.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 33.4 (2010): 353-363. Print.

Mantel, Barbara. “Terrorism and the Internet Should Web Sites That Promote Terrorism Be Shut Down.” The Clean IT Project, 2009. Web. 3 Apr. 2013. <>.

Temin, Peter. “Two Views of the British Industrial Revolution.” The Journal of Economic History 57.1 (1997): 63-82. Print.

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