Science and Technology Roles in Society

Words: 1949
Topic: Tech & Engineering
Updated:

Abstract

Science and technology have played critical roles in transforming society, particularly in the transport and communication sector. Approximately two-hundred years ago, the rate at which changes in technology and science were experienced in the western societies was alarming because it was so intense. The development of the wind power, the emergence of water and animal power, were some of the scientific and technological developments that shocked the humanity. The steam engine quickly supplemented and replaced wind water and animal power, which actually redefined human history. The invention of steam engine contributed to other developments, among them being the establishment of factories, which contributed to industrial revolution. Technologies related to the rail made it easier to transport goods and services from one place to the other quickly over long distances.

Later on, the invention of the telegraph and the telephone enable people to communicate over long distances, particularly across continents. Electrical science and technologies surrounding it supplanted the dim glow of candles, which replaced the use of kerosene and gaslights automatically. In the 20th century, there were major developments in science and technology that reshaped human relations and interactions in society. In the 21st century, science and technology are depended upon meaning that they define the success of an individual in society. Some scholars note that the effectiveness of an organization is defined by its capability to embrace technology. Those that adopt technology with ease have high chances of succeeding as compared to those that lag behind technologically.

Introduction

This article looks at some of the changes that have taken place because of technological and scientific innovations. These changes have redefined human relations in the global society. Science and technology has contributed in the development of medicine, air travel, Business, information distribution, and globalization, which means the reduction of distances and interdependence. Since the start of the 21st century, there has been a revolution in computing and communications mainly because of the developments in science and technology. In fact, it is projected that the trend is expected to continue because technological innovations and developments in science are inevitable. Regarding transport and communication, there have been tremendous changes mainly in terms of passing information from one individual to the other.

The cost of communication is ever reducing because of the new technologies. In the modern society, the cost of passing information from one individual is too low. In fact, there are a number of channels meaning that an individual has various options ranging from the use of the internet to the utilization of the phone. Moreover, information technology has increased the rate of competition. Customers benefit more because they receive quality services at a reduced price. The scientific communication law that Moore formulated suggest that the processing ability of microchips is expected to double after a year, which means that communication is expected to improve further (Popper 12). Even though technological developments present challenges to societal members, people stand to benefit more.

In terms of business and commerce, science and technology have brought about some of the changes that benefit both the consumers and the distributors. Through science and technology, the society is enjoying electronic commerce, which the business conducted through the internet. In fact, internet business, such as online banking and shopping, is expected to transform society into a better place for everybody to live. In the modern society, internet business affects important sectors such as communication, finance, and retail trade. It is projected that it would affect other sectors such as the education sector and the health sector.

Impacts of Science and Technology on the Modern Society

Business Models, Commerce, and the Market Structure

The main role that science and technology play in the modern society is reducing the importance of distance, which has always been an impediment to individual fulfillment in society. In many organizations, the geographic distribution of work is changing at a very high rate. Firms can now outsource services from other regions that have cheap labor. In fact, software firms can triumph over the tight local market for software engineers through sending projects to other countries, particularly India, which is believed to have adequate knowledge and skills at a reduced price. For critical projects, they can be done throughout the day meaning that the issue of deadline is no longer a major problem in business and commerce.

Through technology and developments in science, multinational corporations have a chance of marketing their products and services through the internet meaning that they need not travel to market place. In this regard, it is noted that technology enables a finer division of labor among states, which increases the need for interdependence. Since there is adequate technology in the modern society, firms can relocate their economic activities, which encourages infrastructural development, labor relations, capital flow, and resource marketing.

The taxation system has developed so much in the modern society mainly because of the new technologies, which are very efficient in the development of taxation systems. Therefore, multinational corporations have an option of choosing the best taxation system to operate in meaning that they relocate their business activities to countries that favor their financial strategies. It is conformed through research that computers and other forms of communication technologies favor market-like manufacturing and distribution systems. Informational barriers are reduced through efficient market operations. This is facilitated by an infrastructure of computing and communication technology. Modern science and technology affects the cost structure of an organization in the sense that a business plan can be illustrated on an electronic sample.

Offering online commerce allows the firm to trace the customer through the provision of support services and inventory carrying. Scholars confirm that maintaining an online market is easier as compared to sustaining a brick and moter shop. Moreover, an online shop can perhaps be accessed by many people around the globe as compared a single shop that is only available to citizens of a single locality. Online advertisements are far much cheaper and effective as compared to advertisements channeled through other forms of media. Even though online shops require skilled employees, they are so effective because the demands of a customer are met adequately. This encourages high sales. For digital products such as financial services and software, it is very cheap to deliver them to customers (Kremer 686).

Work Relations and Labor Market

Science and technology have had tremendous effects to the way people relate in the work place. Moreover, the labor market in the modern society depends so much on the technology because employers meet the best employees through wireless communication. The development of the telephone, which is attributed to the major findings in science, have enable people from different continents to communicate in the same way as the traditional face-face communication. Many people in the modern global society depend on online jobs whereby they are able to deliver some assignments without necessarily meeting the clients.

The development of the World Wide Web (www) is one of the modern technologies that are depended upon to communicate across the borders. The system operates around the clock meaning that people are in a position of communicating twenty-four hours a day. Studies show that the introduction of the email has lowered some of the communication barriers that existed in the traditional society. Traditionally, employees in an organization were expected to address their bosses through letters, which were highly official and bureaucratic. An employee would give adequate reasons for wanting to communicate with the boss (Popper 18).

In the modern society, an employee can even chat with the boss provided the things they talk about relate to the activities of the organization. Since there are online jobs, there is no need of commuting for long distances looking for employment yet an individual can be paid by working in his or her house. The emergence of the new technologies and the development in science allows people to work on flexible schedules, work part time, and share jobs. This means that an individual would perhaps hold two jobs, as long as he or she can manage. An individual needs not to stick with one employer because jobs are now offered online. Previously, people would not change their jobs because of the need to change the residence. This has changed in the modern society, allowing job mobility and speed career advancement. In fact, psychologists are of the view that this reduces job stress, which leads to depression. Moreover, it increases job satisfaction because an employee would be more comfortable working under flexible conditions.

Education

Even though some scholars are of the view that the developments in science and technology would eliminate traditional classroom instruction, the reality of the matter is that the developments indeed compliment traditional ways of delivering the course content. In this regard, an effective instructor is urged to mix the traditional and the modern techniques of teaching. Generally, it is agreed that an instructor plays two major roles in the life of a student. One of the roles is supplying services who are the consumers of knowledge. In the second instance, the instructor plays a critical role including supervising students, motivating them, offering encouragement, assessing them, and developing them in terms of technology.

Some students are very active meaning that they learn some instructions without necessarily being taught. They do this using the computer. Studies show that the potential of many students depend on their readiness and willingness to adopt information technology. This means that they should spend time outside the class. Moreover, making critical resolutions to some problem sets and assigned course content that could be accessed online is very convenient for a student. The use of the email allows students to link up with each other, their faculties, and supervisors, particularly when they are in groups (Kelly 76).

Without the internet, the idea of distance learning would be impossible. The use of videos and audio materials in delivering course contents are very common in many institutions of learning because of their effectiveness. This would unachievable without advanced technology and some developments in science. Some individuals cannot attend lectures because of other commitments such as work and family responsibilities. In the modern society, such individuals can pursue courses of their interest because of adequate technology. Students have the chance of accessing high education without necessarily attending lectures.

Private Life and Society

In the modern world, technology and science have helped in reshaping the private life of an individual, as well as the general society. Information can now be accessed in a digital form, which means that the costs of duplication and distribution are now reduced. This has led to the development of laws that protect the intellectual property. This aspect was not there in the traditional society whereby it is always claimed that the inventions by women were attributed to their husbands meaning that women were not valued in society. In the modern society, an individual is awarded his rights, irrespective of gender, age, and the race.

Previously, the government had full control of information because it determined the kind of messages to be passed to the members of the public. This is very different in the modern society because critical information reaches the public before the government could access it (Ambrose 41). Technology has posed a number of challenges to the government because it has to open and democratic. However, with advanced technology, hate speech and indecent message cab be filtered before reaching members of the public. Another feature of scientific and technological development is that it deprives an individual his or her right to privacy. Data handling companies are always required to provide critical information regarding an individual whenever the need arises. This has reduced the cases of crime in society.

Works Cited

Ambrose, Stanley. “Paleolithic Technology and Human Evolution.” Science, 291.1 (2001): 1748–1753. Print.

Kelly, Kevin. What Technology Wants. New York: Viking Press, 2010. Print.

Kremer, Michael. “Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990”. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108.3 (1993): 681–716. Print.

Popper, Frank. From Technological to Virtual Art. London: MIT Press, 2007. Print.