The paper provides the discussion of how the global training plan was developed for Tenet Healthcare Corporation in order to improve the intercultural competence of employees and enhance their communication. The analysis of the organization, as well as global issues and contexts that influence the development of Tenet, is presented in the plan. The discussion is also based on the analysis of the intercultural competence concept and associated four critical dimensions that affect cultural differences.
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The learners’ needs, the goal of training, and objectives are also presented in the paper. The e-learning is selected as the method, and the aspects of training sessions are described in detail. The paper also provides the remarks regarding the implementation of the plan and evaluation of the training results and outcomes for employees in the United States and the United Kingdom, as well as for the whole organization.
Globalization, culture, and diversity issues also influence the field of healthcare services in the United States and worldwide as employees and patients usually have different cultural backgrounds. Tenet Healthcare Corporation is a multinational company that is headquartered in Texas, the United States, and it also provides the care services in the United Kingdom (Tenet Healthcare Corporation, 2016).
While serving the needs of clients from two cultures and recruiting the representatives of different backgrounds, Tenet requires the development of the effective global training plan that can be effective to address the needs related to promoting the diversity in facilities and enhancing the intercultural competence of employees. The ADDIE model based on such stages as Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation should be used as a framework for the plan.
Although Tenet follows principles of cooperation and adopts training programs regularly, much attention should be paid to developing the new training plan oriented to increasing the employees’ intercultural competence and based on the analysis of the organization’s needs, issues, and contexts; formulation of goals and objectives; selection of the training method; implementation of the training; and evaluation of its results.
Analyze. Describe the Chosen Organization and the Reason for Creating a Global Training and Development Plan. Include an Overview of the Organization’s Industry, Mission, Countries of Business, Organizational Structure, Leadership, and Current Training
Tenet Healthcare Corporation is known in North America and Europe as one of the largest multinational providers of healthcare services. The healthcare industry is usually characterized by the high-level diversity while speaking about the staff and clients. It is important to state that the number of employees in Tenet is more than 130 thousand people, who work in two countries and have different cultural backgrounds (Tenet Healthcare Corporation, 2016).
Moreover, while providing the primary and acute care, Tenet serves the needs of diverse clients in the United States and Britain. From this point, the reason for creating the development plan is the necessity to train expatriate managers and diverse employees regarding the cooperation, exchange of experiences, and improvement of provided services while focusing on diversity.
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The development of the training plan is important to ensure that all employees address the Tenet’s mission in their work. Thus, Tenet’s mission is to “help people live happier, healthier lives” (Tenet Healthcare Corporation, 2016, para. 2).
Tenet has many brands and more than four hundred healthcare centers, facilities, and local companies in fourteen states of the United States, as well as in Britain. This aspect influences the organizational structure with the focus on the activities of regional and expatriate managers. While focusing on leadership, it is necessary to note that Trevor Fetter performs as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, and Mark Montoney is Chief Medical Officer in Tenet (Tenet Healthcare Corporation, 2016). The current training in the organization improves the employees’ knowledge regarding the ethics and compliance programs.
Identify at Least Two Current Cultural, Global, or Diversity Issues or Trends in or Affecting the Organization
In the United States and Britain, the two cultural and diversity issues influencing operations of Tenet include the work of expatriate managers with diverse employees and the necessity of developing only one training program that can be used in two countries. It is important to note that the number of diverse employees in Tenet facilities increases annually, and their cultural needs should be addressed (Deardorff, 2009). This tendency is observed under the impact of the recent migration trends in Europe and North America. Tenet needs to adjust the training and development plans or programs to the needs and interests of the diverse staff and expatriate management in order to address the globalization issues and provide the high-quality care.
Summarize the Issues That Are Important to Explore or Consider in Developing the Global Training and Development Plan Based on the Information Provided
More attention should be paid to issues associated with training diverse employees and expatriate managers in two countries. One effective plan should be proposed in order to educate employees on how to collaborate and overcome language barriers in the culturally diverse environments. While developing the training plan, it is important to ensure that the proposed variant can be implemented in the multinational corporation and facilities without focusing on their location (Hutchins & Burke, 2008). The content needs to be appropriate for managers and employees from different cultural backgrounds, and it should be useful in terms of promoting the communication and cooperation in teams.
Define Intercultural Competence. How Does This Concept Relate to the Chosen Organization’s Mission? How Does the Organization Currently Address This Concept Through Training and Development? What Gaps Are There between What Is Currently Done and What Needs to Be Done in Relation to Developing Intercultural Competence?
Skills which allow individuals to communicate with representatives of different cultures easily and in a culturally appropriate manner are known as the intercultural competence. In order to be discussed as having the intercultural competence, a person should have the cultural awareness and demonstrate positive attitudes to diverse people (Deardorff, 2009). Since the mission of Tenet is to make people healthy and happy, the principles of intercultural competence are reflected in it in terms of providing the appropriate assistance without prejudice and stereotyping.
Tenet also refers to the intercultural competence while implementing training and development programs. The current programs work to improve the employees’ knowledge and skills regarding people’s differences, ethical norms, the intercultural relations, and organizational values (Tenet Healthcare Corporation, 2016).
However, there are gaps between the provided training and the employees’ needs for improving the intercultural competence. Thousands of employees participate in this training program annually. Still, the number of diverse workers and patients increases, and they need to learn more details regarding intercultural relationships and communication (White & Shullman, 2012). The global training program should become more focused in order to address such gaps as the lack of awareness, underdeveloped intercultural communication skills, and intercultural cooperation skills.
Describe at Least Two Social, Political, or Historical Contexts Influencing the Organization and the Development of Employees’ Intercultural Competence. What Considerations Regarding These Contexts Should Be Made in Developing Training Initiatives for This Organization? If These Contexts Are Currently Being Addressed, Describe How and Evaluate These Applications for Improvements and Gaps
In Tenet, the intercultural competence is influenced by the historical relationships between the United States and the United Kingdom and differences in these cultures’ reactions and attitudes to the issue of diversity. In the majority of cases, representatives of the American and British cultures are inclined to perceive themselves as belonging to the same Western English-speaking cultural context. However, both cultures respect their specific traditions, and people can also perceive themselves as representatives of completely different cultures.
Moreover, the attitude to recruiting the culturally diverse specialists in the US and UK facilities is also different (Deardorff, 2009). Thus, in the United States, the workforce diversity is accepted and often supported. The different situation can be observed in the United Kingdom, where employees can resist accepting expatriate managers or migrant workers.
While developing the effective training program, these contexts should be taken into account in terms of paying more attention to assigning trainers from different cultures and developing the sessions’ content. The training should demonstrate the benefits of retaining the culturally diverse employees in UK facilities. The program should be focused on improving the communication between employees and managers and contribute to their collaboration (Bird, Mendenhall, Stevens, & Oddou, 2010).
Although the managers from UK and US facilities participate in decision-making processes, the level of cooperation is still low, and the effective plan is required to address these contexts effectively.
Assess the Four Critical Dimensions That Help Explain Differences in Cultural Expectations. How Do Each of These Relate to the Chosen Organization and Its Global Training Efforts? What Considerations Need to Be Made to Address the Expectations Identified by These Dimensions in the Creation of This Training Plan?
Four dimensions are used to discuss differences in cultures, as well as individuals’ expectations. These dimensions are egalitarianism vs. hierarchy, the achievement vs. relationship orientation, the loose vs. tight structure, and individualism vs. collectivism (Weech, 2001). The idea of egalitarianism explains how representatives of different cultures perceive differences in statuses and positions. The United States and the United Kingdom are egalitarian cultures.
Thus, the training sessions in Tenet are based on the employees’ interaction to help them learn from each other. Achievement-oriented cultures are interested in gaining rewards in contrast to the relationship-oriented cultures that are focused on interactions. Currently, the training programs of Tenet reflect the achievement-oriented approach because employees often participate in competitions to develop their potential and gain rewards.
The loose structure of the culture means that individuals expect to choose among the variety of solutions and alternatives (Dartey-Baah, 2013). The American and British employees are representatives of the loose-structure culture, and they actively participate in activities to train their skills in decision-making and problem-solving. Individualistic cultures are characterized by the interest in the person’s autonomy. In Tenet, the training program activities accentuate the expected independence in working and decision-making.
The global training plan should address these differences in cultures. Trainers working with employees with the Asian or Latin cultural backgrounds should remember that they are more oriented to following norms of the hierarchy. Therefore, training sessions should also include the expert-centered activities, such as presentations and guidance. Representatives of relationship-oriented cultures should be trained in a friendly and cooperative manner (Graf, 2009).
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Trainers should propose decision-making strategies that are appropriate for representatives of both loose-structure and tight cultures. Employees should also participate in activities when they can resolve problems independently and as a team. Training sessions and communication with instructors should be based on the teamwork, training activities in groups, as well as the individual work to guarantee the better performance and skills’ development.
Summarize How Intercultural Competence Is Addressed by the Industry or Field of the Chosen Organization. What Considerations regarding the Industry or Field Should Be Made in Developing Training Initiatives for This Organization? If These Issues Are Currently Being Addressed, Describe How and Evaluate These Applications for Improvements and Gaps
In the healthcare industry, the intercultural competence means the quality of interactions between healthcare professionals and culturally diverse patients, as well as the communication among diverse employees. Healthcare professionals need to address cultural and language backgrounds, values, beliefs, and traditions of diverse patients in order to ensure that diagnoses are set appropriately (Deardorff, 2009).
Moreover, healthcare professionals also receive the education regarding the cross-cultural care and communication in order to treat colleagues with respect. Diverse employees need to collaborate in healthcare facilities in order to guarantee the high-quality delivery of care and services (Graf, 2009). While developing the training initiatives for Tenet, it is important to respond to the issue of the intercultural communication between employees. The reason is that they need to improve their awareness of cultural differences, and avoid the misunderstanding to prevent ethical issues.
The managers make efforts to provide employees of Tenet with the necessary training to address the identified issues. The ethics programs include the information on respecting cultural backgrounds and differences, as well as the resolution of the complicated ethical cases (Tenet Healthcare Corporation, 2016). Nevertheless, more positive outcomes are observed in terms of addressing the problem of the intercultural communication between the staff and patients.
On the contrary, the problem of the diverse employees’ collaboration seems to be unresolved. Representatives of English-speaking, Latin, Asian, and Arab cultures work in the company’s facilities globally, and it is important to improve the communication between them while proposing the training plan. It is also important to address the issues regarding the decision-making, the independence in problem-solving, and the appropriateness of supervision because diverse employees can react to authorities, the issue of hierarchy, and the problem of autonomy differently.
Describe the Overall Goal or Outcome of the Global Training and Development Plan Based on the Needs Assessment and Gap Analysis Conducted via B-G. This Should Be a Broad Statement about What Is Expected of Learners, Focusing on the Target to Be Achieved
The needs assessment and the analysis of gaps related to the current training followed in Tenet allow formulating the goal of this global training program that aims at addressing weaknesses of the currently used approaches. Tenet has the problem with the intercultural training for expatriate managers and diverse employees in terms of improving the knowledge regarding the intercultural communication. It is also necessary to enhance the teamwork, cooperation, and collaboration. The exchange of experiences is limited (Tenet Healthcare Corporation, 2016). Cultural and language barriers are not addressed appropriately.
While referring to the needs assessment, the goal of the global training program for Tenet can be formulated the following way:
To achieve the effective communication, cooperation, and collaboration between expatriate managers and employees, including culturally and linguistically diverse employees, with the focus on their enhanced teamwork, critical thinking, negotiation skills, decision-making, and problem-solving.
Employees are expected to improve their cultural awareness and learn how to communicate and cooperate using their intercultural competence. From this point, the target goal of the training is the improved cooperation between culturally diverse employees. Expatriate managers and representatives of cultural minorities in the United States and the United Kingdom need to learn how to interact while improving performance and productivity.
Describe the Organization’s Learners in Terms of Their Backgrounds; Pre-Existing Knowledge, Skills, or Conditions; Cultural Dimensions That Apply to the Cultures of Focus; Expectations of Training; and Obstacles or Barriers to Learning
The learners are expatriate managers from the United States, who work in the United Kingdom, and employees working in different facilities in both countries. Managers have the pre-existing knowledge based on the previous cross-cultural and ethical training conducted by Tenet specialists (Tenet Healthcare Corporation, 2016). They are expected to have developed skills in order to work with diverse employees. Still, it is important to note that expatriate managers are representatives of the English-speaking majority in both countries. Therefore, they need to improve their skills regarding the cooperation with representatives of the European, Latin, Asian, African, and Arab cultures.
The other group of learners includes diverse employees and migrant workers. It is possible to assume that they were previously educated and employed in other countries. However, their knowledge and skills regarding the intercultural communication can be different. It is also necessary to pay attention to learning styles, the individuals’ desire to change their communication approaches, and their level of motivation (Homan, Buengeler, Eckhoff, Van Ginkel, & Voelpel, 2015).
These learners also have various visions regarding the autonomy, individualism, hierarchy, cooperation, and teamwork. The managers’ focus on their preferred communication styles without adapting them to the employees’ needs creates barriers to learning (Hassi & Storti, 2011). Additional barriers include the lack of language skills and traditional visions regarding the hierarchy and relationships between employees and supervisors, as well as stereotyping.
Design. Identify at Least Four Objectives for the Chosen Organization’s Interculturally Competent Training Program. These Objectives Should Be SMART. Be Sure to Consider the Fundamentals of Global and Cross-Cultural Training, Applying These Specifically to the Chosen Organization and Its Goal
It is possible to achieve the goal while completing the following objectives that are specific and measurable:
- By the end of this training session, learners will identify and address differences in cultures and potential problems related to the intercultural communication in 80% of cases.
- By the end of this training session, learners will adjust their behaviors and attitudes in order to participate in the work with managers or subordinates, individual work, teamwork, or group work effectively in 80% of cases.
- By the end of this training session, learners will negotiate their experiences, ideas, and decisions openly in 75% of problematic cases that require the decision.
- By the end of this training session, 90% of learners will implement the cooperation and collaboration strategies when it is required.
These objectives are based on such fundamentals of the global training as the necessities to define the culture, its values, and possible differences in order to contribute to the cultural awareness. Furthermore, the additional important fundamentals followed in this plan are the focus on communication, cooperation, collaboration, and culture, as it is noted by Petranek (2004). These principles are correlated with the set goals and proposed objectives.
Develop. Choose a Training Method to Address the Overall Goal and Learning Objectives Identified in the Design Section of the Plan. Describe the Overall Concept of the Training, How It Addresses the Goal and Learning Objectives, Audience of Focus and How the Fundamentals of Global and Cross-Cultural Training Will Be Incorporated into Development and Delivery. Demonstrate Research Support for the Usage of the Chosen Method in This Context. Evaluate the Advantages and Disadvantages (or Barriers) of Using This Method for This Training
E-learning is selected as the training method for the Tenet’s development program. This method is the preferred one when it is necessary to work with employees from different facilities, regions, or countries (Nathan, 2008). The goal of the global training is to develop the intercultural competence in expatriate managers and other diverse employees while promoting the effective cooperation. It is possible to identify the necessity of providing the simultaneous training for expatriate managers, supervisors, and team leaders as the audience of focus in the United Kingdom and the United States while involving trainers and experts from two countries.
During online training sessions and while completing interactive tasks, employees can exchange their experiences. According to Mysirlaki and Paraskeva (2010), expatriate managers need to learn how to “collaborate with diverse teams of people – face-to-face or at a distance – to accomplish a task” (p. 21). E-learning allows using computers, laptops, online conferences, interactive tasks, online sessions, and online games as approaches to developing the cooperation. Employees can receive the on-job training without interrupting their work in facilities.
Advantages of using e-learning for training adults from diverse cultural backgrounds are in possibilities to make training as flexible and innovative as possible and utilize the best achievements of traditional learning while referring to personal contacts with trainers. E-learning can increase the employees’ motivation to develop their intercultural competence (Batalla-Busquets & Pacheco-Bernal, 2013).
For Tenet, the advantages also include low costs because of savings associated with trainers’ business trips. One more advantage connected with the possibility to address managers and team leaders in different countries is the provision of the online assessment to check the completion of objectives in different forms (Nathan, 2008). Predicted barriers include the resistance to e-learning because of lack of skills in using computers and other technologies, as well as perceptions of games and simulations as a ‘non-serious’ approach (White & Shullman, 2012). These barriers can be overcome with the help of discussing principles of e-learning before training sessions can start.
Describe How the Chosen Training Method Will Be Implemented for Training, Role of the Trainer in Implementing This Solution, and Other Considerations regarding How the Solution Will Be Delivered. Be Sure to Consider Culture, Critical Dimensions, Languages, etc.
E-learning provides trainers with a perfect opportunity to perform the roles of not only curators and monitors but also content creators and moderators of the online interaction. It is expected that training for the offices and facilities in the United Kingdom and the United States will be provided by professionals in the field of the intercultural communication simultaneously. The first step is the preparation of the content for training by the group of instructors who will conduct the sessions (Deardorff, 2009).
In order to address cultural and language issues, trainers are assigned to groups with references to their cultural backgrounds and experience, and some material for training sessions is provided in Spanish for employees in the United States. For Tenet, the training based on the principle of e-learning will be implemented as
- (a) a series of trainer’s presentations and guidance followed with tests and assessments;
- (b) a series of online conferences and group communications;
- (c) a series of interactive activities, simulations, and online games to improve the knowledge regarding the cultural competence and develop skills.
The task of trainers is to plan and organize the content to cover these activities and the set objectives.
The second step is the division of learners in groups with references to their location (the United Kingdom or the United States) and responsibilities. Thus, each group will include ten to fifteen members. All groups will be provided with the introductory word regarding the role of the intercultural communication in the working activities, the purpose of the training, and its organization. The third step is the guidance regarding the use of computers and laptops in the training and conference room depending on the location and for the purpose of participating in online conferences, online sessions, interactive tasks, and online games.
The additional guidance will address the resistance of learners associated with the lack of computer skills. The next steps include the actual training based on the e-learning system (Batalla-Busquets & Pacheco-Bernal, 2013). The main focus is on using interactive guidelines, providing materials that can be easily accessed online, and regular video interactions. In addition to group activities, the training in Tenet also involves the individual interaction with trainers with the help of audio and text chats in order to monitor the progress in learning the concepts related to the cross-cultural communication.
Implement. Since You Will not Be Implementing the Design Plan, Consider This Section an Opportunity to Elaborate on Any Additional Items to Consider Regarding Implementation That Were Addressed in the Develop Section of the Plan. How Will You Know if Things Are Working or Not Working?
The success of training sessions depends on the organization and content. All trainees should have the easy access to the information technologies in order to participate in activities. The content of presentations, simulations, and interactive activities should include
- (a) the discussion of cross-cultural case studies;
- (b) the analysis of real-life situations;
- (c) the discussion of critical situations associated with the cultural misunderstanding;
- (d) the training to promote communication and teamwork;
- (e) the training to improve negotiation practices;
- (f) the training to overcome cultural barriers and stereotypes (Mysirlaki & Paraskeva, 2010).
Moreover, the objectives and criteria according to which the progress of learners will be evaluated should be stated clearly.
In order to become sure that the training is working, it is necessary to conduct assessments in a form of tests and surveys in order to evaluate the learners’ understanding of concepts and their overall attitude to the training sessions, as well as their thoughts regarding the training effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to conduct tests and surveys regarding the changes in the communication between expatriate managers and the diverse personnel, changes in addressing cultural and language barriers, as well as improvements in the communication, teamwork, and cooperation noticed by employees (McClay & Irwin, 2008).
These assessments are important to be used by trainers in order to modify or add some content depending on the learners’ progress and needs. These activities should be performed in addition to the assessment made to evaluate the trainees’ progress regarding the course.
Evaluate. Describe How the Training Will Be Evaluated. How Will You Know if the Learners Met the Overall Goal and Individual Objectives From Using the Chosen Training Method? Be Sure to Include a Discussion of How the Evaluation Relates to Kirkpatrick’s Training Evaluation Model and How Assessments of Intercultural Competence Apply to This Training. When and How Will the Evaluations Be Conducted? How Will the Results of the Evaluation Be Used?
The outcomes of training will be evaluated with references to Kirkpatrick’s evaluation model that includes the focus on Reactions, Learning, Behavior, and Results (Steensma & Groeneveld, 2010). Thus, the process of evaluation should include several stages that are important to provide the trainers with the information whether the goal and objectives were achieved. According to Kirkpatrick’s model, the first stage is the evaluation of the learners’ reactions (Steensma & Groeneveld, 2010).
Surveys need to be taken after activities in order to monitor the trainees’ responses, as it was mentioned in the previous section. Surveys or questionnaires allow analyzing the learners’ attitudes to their training and their level of satisfaction. During the second stage of Kirkpatrick’s model, it is necessary to evaluate the trainees’ learning. According to the first objective, learners are expected to identify and address differences in cultures, as well as potential problems associated with the intercultural communication. It is possible to assess the trainees’ learning using online tests and short quizzes which are helpful to check the learners’ understanding of the material.
The next step is the evaluation of changes in behaviors of learners in order to conclude about the application of the learned concepts and developed skills. It is expected that learners will change their behaviors and attitudes to representatives of different cultures, they will participate in the work with managers, individual work, and teamwork effectively, and they will be able to negotiate their experiences, ideas, and decisions while communicating with representatives of different cultures (McClay & Irwin, 2008).
In order to assess this behavior, it is necessary to use observations during the interactive activities and the analysis of case studies that represent different aspects of the cross-cultural communication. At this stage, it is also necessary to use intercultural competence assessments and inventories in order to monitor changes in the employees’ cultural perceptions, attitudes, and visions regarding the diversity.
According to Kirkpatrick’s model, at the final stage, it is necessary to evaluate the overall outcomes of the training session for the organization. According to the fourth objective, learners are expected to implement the cooperation and collaboration strategies while working with different cultures, and frequency records are important to be used in order check the application of skills during six months after the training sessions (McClay & Irwin, 2008).
This approach will allow concluding about the effectiveness of the training to improve the communication, cooperation, and collaboration between culturally and linguistically diverse expatriate managers and employees in different facilities of Tenet. Therefore, the assessments will be conducted during and after the training, and the results will be used to improve the training content and material in order to be applied in the work with the other groups of workers. In addition, the results will be used to improve the strategies of communication and collaboration for diverse employees.
Describe the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Proposed Global Training and Development Plan. What Potential Issues Do You See with Its Implementation, Data Collection Methods, Costs and Resources Needed, Acceptance by Management, Participation of Various Parties, etc.? What Major Ethical Issues Will Need to Be Considered with This Plan?
The global training and development plan is designed according to the principles of the ADDIE model that includes such stages as Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. The main strength of the proposed training and development plan is the possibility to conduct the training while involving experts and trainees from different countries and facilities and make it flexible while providing group and individual sessions without interrupting the working process in the organization (White & Shullman, 2012). The plan accentuates that the training based on e-learning is practical, learner-oriented, and active.
However, the plan’s strengths related to the use of technologies can also be perceived as a weakness in cases when individuals are oriented to the face-to-face communication and the use of traditional means for learning.
Therefore, the issues associated with the implementation include the necessity of guaranteeing that all learners know how to use laptops and computers for their work, how to participate in interactive activities or games, as well as how to switch the language and work with training materials (McClay & Irwin, 2008). As a result, the pre-training guidance is also important in order to guarantee the participation of employees who can be resistant to such training sessions. Still, in spite of the use of the latest technologies, this training is cost-efficient as instructors do not need to travel or print the learning materials.
The ethical issues that need to be taken into account while implementing the plan include the necessity of protecting confidentiality and privacy while selecting case studies and real-life situations for the discussions during training sessions. Furthermore, it is important to address the ethics associated with different cultural norms and avoid violating or ignoring the learners’ beliefs and visions (Nathan, 2008). In addition, learners who are trained online and with the help of technologies should be more responsible while completing tasks and monitoring their formal and informal communication with trainers.
In spite of the fact that Tenet Healthcare Corporation adopted several programs to improve the knowledge of employees regarding ethics and cooperation, more training sessions are necessary for this organization. The new training plan is developed in order to teach diverse employees from the United States and the United Kingdom how to collaborate effectively. This training program is developed to increase the workers’ intercultural sensitivity and intercultural competence.
These positive outcomes can be expected because the plan was developed according to the ADDIE model. Therefore, the first stage in the development process was the analysis of the organization’s needs, issues, and contexts. The second stage was the formulation of the main goal and the supporting objectives in order to address them during the training process.
At the stage of the program’s development, it was necessary to select the training method that could be appropriate to develop the employees’ skills regarding the intercultural communication while involving trainers and trainees from different countries and locations. The next stage was the discussion of the program’s implementation and associated issues. At the final stage, it was necessary to conduct the evaluation of the training results according to Kirkpatrick’s model and focus on the plan’s advantages and disadvantages.
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