How Personal Can Ethics Get?


Ethical decisions are essential aspects, which make efficient running of organizations possible. It is evident that, everyone evaluates ethical matters in the best way they understand. Thus, to avoid disagreement involving a person’s views and institution norms, organizations have put up rules and measures that guide individuals during decision-making.

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“Discuss how personal differences and preference can impact organizational ethics.”

Dench (2006) depicts that ethics is the learning of proper values, ideologies, and regulations. This includes the determination of principles relating to demeanor and compulsion of individuals and organizations. Thus, a person may perceive a certain issue ethical, while another person would perceive the same issue unethical. It is noteworthy that, human beings build up their own convention of personal ethics based upon a diversity of source and conviction.

Virtually, humans develop their intellect of correct and erroneous issues through their parental influences. Lawrence Kohlberg realized that people viewed ethical and moral issues in congruence with their understanding. Thus, he came up with a model that depicted the periods or segments of moral expansion. It revealed ways in which an individual will make decent choices in organizations. Moreover, he implies that a person advances through these stages during their life (Dench, 2006).

Kohlberg’s model consists of six phases of moral progress that are additionally dividable into three levels. Pre-conventional level is the first where a person appraises ethical and moral issues based on the thought of looking for individual incentive and evading castigation. The subsequent level is conventional. Here, a person assesses ethical concerns on the foundation of justice to those involved and an aspiration to obey societal regulations and prospect. Principle level is the highest level where a person is likely to apply principles like practical and impartiality, when solving ethical matters. Kohlberg affirms that a person in this level is unlikely to experience manipulation by the prospects of the organization, as they look more into themselves.

Ethics in business refer to the ideologies and values that steers conduct in business-related concerns. These stages of moral advancement can portray how people at the different levels make ethical resolutions in institutions. An organization’s stakeholder and shareholder can convey personal differences. It is noteworthy that, persons who make ethical resolutions basing on the shareholder perception do focus on the owner’s paramount interest.

For instance, such individuals believe that business ethics that make a lot of money are the best. Hence, they stand by them not considering the impact they have on their relationship with colleagues. However, there are individuals who make ethical decisions basing on the stakeholder viewpoint. Hence, they believe that it is essential to consider their concern, desires, and not just those who benefit from the organization’s profits and losses. Most importantly, organizations that use this perspective in evaluation of ethical issues consider the impact of such decisions on those directly and indirectly affiliated to the organization (Clegg, Kornberger & Rhodes, 2007).

“Discuss how organizational policies and procedures can impact ethics.”

Organizations have developed rules and measures to deal with the opposing views and perceptions on ethical issues held by every one. These policies are codes of demeanor in the organization. Moreover, they outline the ethical expectations of the association. It is noteworthy that, policies are essential in an organization as it portrays the customs and viewpoint of an organization. In addition, they are able to solve ethical issues uniformly and efficiently as they crop up within the organization. Most importantly, the evaluation and solving of moral matters in the organization is restricted to the rules. Hence, individuals are to make such decisions basing on these policies. Actually, any issues solved without consideration these rules and measures are unethical (Clegg, 2007).

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“Discuss the ethical dilemmas that Valerie is facing.”

Valarie wanted to make copies of her papers and went to the copy room within the office. She was placing her original documents in the machine when she realized there was a paper jam and who ever caused it never took care of it. She immediately started unlocking the paper draws and tried out the output tray. Just as, she was about to throw them she noticed they were her boss’s company documents. They portrayed the commissions and fees totaling to $35000 a month.

This clearly revealed that Waters was receiving bribes from these fragrance companies. She was confused on the decision to take, as reporting this incident might get her fired. Most importantly, she is an immigrant on a US special working visa; thus, losing her job would obviously make her get deported. Moreover, she had just enrolled at the ‘University of Chicago’ to study a master’s program. Evidently, her tuition fee would be reimbursed by the company if she attained grades of A’s and B’s in her study. This was a great opportunity to advance her career. It is a fact that if she reported this it would affect her life and that of her colleagues (Dench, 2006).

She decided to keep quiet until she is in a position to report this incident. It is noteworthy that, she uses ethical intensity in making her resolution. This is the enormity of consequences, which is the damage or advantage that a person affected by a decision acquires. Thus, she believed that reporting waters would maker her lose her job, blow her career advancement opportunity and get her deported. Furthermore, she portrays a self-serving principle of hedonist whereby a person does whatever benefits her. She is aware that keeping quiet with the problem is unethical but she considers what would benefit her before anything else (Dench, 2006).

“Recommend what Valerie should do. Provide a detailed explanation.”

Valerie should take the right decision in congruence with the company rules and measures. Thus, she must bring the matter to the attention of her superiors in any way possible. Most importantly, she must put into consideration the fact that there might be more people within the company involved in this scandal. She has to report this to her superiors anonymously to avoid revealing her self at this time.

Furthermore, it is obvious that when her identity is exposed she risks not accomplishing all her goals in life. This can easily happen due to retaliation from company insiders who are perpetuating such behaviors. It is essential that she report the actions of her boss regardless of the difficulty. It is crucial to protect the company policies, in addition to her personal principles. Hence, letting her superiors aware of this unethical vice that Waters exhibits is the best decision. After all, her company policies prohibited employees from receiving kickbacks. Despite the fact, that she has done this without revealing her identity it still counts that she acted ethically. Most importantly, she will have cleared all the guilt in her conscience (Dench, 2006).

In conclusion, it is necessary that individuals make right decisions at all times thus, adherence to organizations policies. This ensures organizational and personal principles are closely guarded and conflicts avoided.


Clegg, S., Kornberger, M. and Rhodes, C. (2007). Business Ethics as Practice. British Journal of Management, 18: 107–122.

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Dench, S. (2006). How personal can ethics get? Journal of management development, 10: 1013-1017.

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