Investing in London

Group Cultural Dynamics

The conference will include investors who have expressed interest in investing in the local economy. Most of these investors are from Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates. They are Arabs who are strongly convinced that the city has a lot to offer to the investors in various fields. The cultural background of these investors differs slightly with the popular culture in this city. Most of them are Muslims who believe in Islamic teachings and practices. According to Perrini, Salvi, and Teti (2008), in Saudi Arabia, and most of the Islamic countries, wealth is still controlled by male members of the society. Most of the participants at this conference are men.

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According to Cunha and Heckman (2009), Islam prohibits any form of usury, gambling, and similar activities believed to give people an unfair advantage over others in terms of wealth generation. Its means that investment institutions such as the banking sector may need to be custom made to suit their cultural practised. London has one of the most developed banking industries in the world. However, these investors will need a different form of the banking system that operates in line with their cultural practices and beliefs. They believe that interest that is earned by banks is not fair as per the Islamic teachings. Activities such as gambling are not permitted under Islam. According to Yach, Brinchmann, and Bellet (2001), cultural practices and beliefs have a major impact on the type of business that an investor would consider engaging in, especially in major businesses involved in this conference. An investor would not only be interested in a business that gives good financial returns. It is also important for them to have businesses that give them social satisfaction. They should be proud of their businesses, and that can only happen if such businesses are in line with their socio-cultural beliefs and practices.

Age is another important factor that defines the approach that an investor takes when undertaking a given business activity. Most of the participants are middle-aged individuals below 45 years. Although some of them are aged individuals above 60 years, the population is dominated by young men and women who are keen on recreating their wealth or the wealth of their families. Some of them are fresh from colleges and have accompanied their ageing parents to help them in making smart investment decisions in this city. The diversity in terms of age clearly shows that these investors may be interested in various forms of businesses. According to Cunha and Heckman (2009), young investors often go for ambitious projects with high risks and high returns. At their age, they can afford to make mistakes because they know they can correct them in future. On the other hand, the ageing population is often cautious, willing to make small profits in business with as minimal risks and uncertainties as possible.

Most of these investors come from rich Arab families. Some of them have gone to school in the United States and in Europe. Others have never travelled beyond the borders of their country. They have been actively involved in the trade of oil and are now looking for opportunities to invest in other industries outside their countries. They are shrewd businessmen and women who understand what they need and believe that this city has what it takes to attract international investors.

London’s Ethical, Cultural, Political and Social Context

London, the capital city of the United Kingdom, is one of the oldest cities in the world that has played a major role in defining the modern-day civilisation. Currently, it is the largest and most populous city in the United Kingdom. It has one of the most advanced financial industries, and other sectors of the economy are fully developed. According to Woods and Urwin (2010), when analysing a city, investors are always interested in various socio-economic and political factors that will directly affect their operations in the market. It is important to look at these factors to determine how relevant this city is to these investors and what areas of the economy can be appealing to different groups of investors based on their age and socio-cultural beliefs and practices.

Ethical environment

When an investor is making plans to invest in a given economy, one of the most important factors to consider is the ethical environment in the host country. Ethics are critical in defining the relationship between a business and its clients, other businesses, and the government. This relationship should lead to the mutual benefit of all the stakeholders in a fair manner based on the existing laws and privileges. London is one of the least corrupt cities in the world (Jenson, 2004). Corruption is a global problem affecting many businesses around the world. The city of London has not rid itself completely of some elements of corruption. However, there are efficient instruments that are put in place to protect citizens and business entities from the vice of corruption. Ethics can also be looked at in terms of how well people respect the existing laws and regulations. Lefkowitz (2003) says that simple city laws and regulations defining road usage, garbage management, green gas emissions, and such other daily life issues are observed very strictly.

People respect the law, not just because there are instruments put in place to ensure that there is enforcement, but also because they feel they own these laws and regulations and that by upholding the law they are protecting themselves and their loved ones. Leaders know how to relate to their followers. According to Cunha and Heckman (2009), ethics in all public offices is something that is highly valued in this country. Every single public servant who is assigned any public office is expected to serve residents of this city to the best of their capacity. Business entities, both in public and private sectors, are also expected to uphold ethics at all times. The ethical environment in the city of London is very supportive of any new business venture, whether it is owned by a local or foreigners. The laws and regulations that govern the business society are not designed to favour one group of business entities and oppress others. All businesses are protected, and the implementers of these policies are often under strict rules to be just. These investors will benefit a lot from these high moral standards that are upheld not only by the government agencies but also by the residents of this city.

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Cultural environment

The cultural environment is another factor that defines the ability of an investor to succeed, especially when investing in a foreign country. A report by Lefkowitz (2003) focuses on the buying culture. Sometimes the locals may develop a culture of buying locals to promote the local economy. Such a buying culture was very popular in China in the 1980s and 1990s. In London, such a culture does not exist. The local consumers trust brands and highly value quality irrespective of the country of origin of the product. As such, foreigners have nothing to fear because the locals will purchase their products as long as they are assured of high quality. The xenophobia that has been witnessed in other cities around the world is not common in the city of London. It is one of the cities in the world where investors do not need to hide their true identity based on country of origin, religion, or any other such factors.

Christianity is the dominant religious group in this country. For those who are strong believers in Jesus Christ, their cultural practices and beliefs are based on the teachings of Jesus. However, there is a considerable number of Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists, Atheists, among other religious groups. Religion profoundly influences the buying culture of the people of this city. Education is one of the main industries that a new investor may consider. However, when an investor plans to start Madrasas as the main business venture, then chances are that such a business may not be appealing to a wider audience because Muslims make the minority group. Understanding cultural environment makes it possible for the investor to plan the investment strategy in a way that would yield the best returns.

Political environment

The political environment in the city of London is very appropriate for both local and foreign investors. The city of London, and the entire country, has experienced a long period of political stability. According to Jenson (2004), the queen and the royal family had helped create a stable political atmosphere even when the political leadership changed from one person to another and from one party to another. The stability and tranquillity in the political environment make it possible for businesses to run without any fear of aggressive acts. The current mayor of London is Sadiq Khan. He rose to power in a peaceful process that did not have any negative impact on the business community.

Jenson (2004) says that when the political class starts interfering with business entities either directly or indirectly, then the business environment becomes unstable. The political leaders in this city have often avoided any form of interference with the business community. On the contrary, they have been keen to enact laws and regulations that can protect and promote the growth of businesses. It is such an environment that a new investor needs because it gives an assurance that those in power will not abuse it in any way that may cause negative consequences to emerging firms. In its website, the government of London City has outlined the governance programme and how its expenses are planned to promote a good business environment. The political leaders work very closely with the players in the private sector to create an enabling business environment as one of the ways of promoting economic growth and fighting unemployment.

Economic environment

The investors will be very interested in understanding the economic environment of the city of London before making the final investment decision. These foreign investors will be looking at the economic capacity of this city and its ability to give returns to their investment. According to Lefkowitz (2003, p. 88), “London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transport” It has one of the most advanced financial sectors in the global market. The education, tourism, and transport sectors are also ranked among the top globally. Having well-established industries does not mean new business ventures cannot find a market gap to fill. It only means that any new business venture must be ready to deal with a market that demands the best due to the high level of market rivalry. It means that these investors can still identify any of the industries that they consider appealing, but they will have to know how to offer the best quality to remain relevant in the market.

When analysing the economic environment of a market, it is important to determine the purchasing power of the individual customers and how wealth is distributed in the economy. The United Kingdom is one of the developed economies. In the city of London, the purchasing power of people is relatively high compared with that of other cities around the world. The level of unemployment is very low. Wealth is not held by the state but spread among the people. Given that it is a capitalistic nation, there is a section of the society that is very rich, while a small section is still struggling to earn a living. The high purchasing power in this city makes it very attractive to the investors.

Social environment

The social environment of the city is also an important factor that an investor would be interested in when determining its appropriateness as an investment destination. Most of the Londoners are people with an above college level of education. Their social practices are redefined by civilisation through education. The society is highly diversified because of the immigration that the city has been experiencing over the years.

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Benefits of investing in London

As an investor, London is one of the most appropriate destination cities in the world. It has numerous benefits that any sound business unit should never ignore. The living standards of the Londoners are high, which means that they have a high purchasing power. Their buying capacity makes it an appropriate place to invest in as long as the product has demand in the local market. The security of the city is also one of the best in the world. Investors will also benefit from the improved transport and communication infrastructure, mature banking sector, very minimal level of corruption, and a high level of diversity.

Project Planning

Gantt chart

The Gantt chart below shows the steps that the team should take when planning for this project.

Figure 1: Action programme.

July August September October November December
Identify the participant X
Determine their investment needs X
Identify media platforms to use X
Design promotional messages X
Use digital media to reach them. X
Launch the project X

Detailed analysis of the plan

The mini-conference will help demonstrate to the investors what the city has to offer in terms of business opportunities. These are aggressive and very smart investors who know the environmental factors necessary for their businesses to succeed in any foreign environment. As such, this conference must present to them detailed information on what they need to hear about this city that will help them in making their investment decision. According to Woods and Urwin (2010), to have a successful business conference, it is necessary to have a plan that clearly demonstrates what should be done, how the stakeholders will be assigned different tasks in this project and the time that will be taken in every single activity in this project. The Gantt chart above has outlined these activities and the time that will be taken to accomplish each of the tasks. In this section, the researcher will look at some of the factors that the planners will need to put into consideration to make it easy for the participants coming from other countries to travel and stay for the conference.

Immigration/visa considerations

The United Kingdom, just like any other country around the world, requires foreigners to get a visa before travelling to the country. All the participants who are not British nationals and are not currently staying in the United Kingdom will need a visa to enable them to attend this conference. As such, they need to understand what it takes to get this important document that will facilitate their travel. The process of getting a United Kingdom’s visa is simple irrespective of the location of the travellers. The first step in the visa application is to determine the type of visa that one needs. The attendants of this conference will need business visas because their primary reason for coming to this country is to identify business opportunities.

The applicant should visit the United Kingdom’s website and make the applications online. Once one has made an online application, the person will be expected to visit the immigration centre for further verification. For those coming from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, they can find the visa application centres in Riyadh, Al Khobar, or Jeddah. For those in the United Arab Emirates, the visa application centres are in Dubai and Abu Dhabi cities. At these centres, the immigration officials will verify the details that the applicant entered online and determine that the applicant is not a fugitive trying to escape to a foreign country.

The main activity at this stage will be the verification of documents and determination of the suitability of the applicant to visit the United Kingdom. The applicants should remember to book for an appointment prior to visiting these centres. On the day of visiting these centres, they should remember to carry with them their passport, appointment letter, and an additional form of identification to help in the verification process (Woods & Urwin 2010). The verification process is simple and only takes a few minutes. As long as the information presented is true, the verification procedure will lead to approval, and the documents can be collected from these centres or can be posted to the applicant’s desired destination.

When any of the applicants encounter any challenges in the process of making applications for the visas, they should contact the organisers of this conference through the contacts that shall be provided. There is a team that has been put in place to look into such issues. The team will be able to help. For those whose applications have been approved and are ready to travel, they should call the organisers to confirm their attendance. There will be another team responsible for receiving the visitors and ensuring that they are helped to get accommodation as soon as they reach the city.

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Financial costs

The attendants of this conference will need to plan for the cost of travelling and their accommodation once they are in the city. The organisers of this conference will not be providing accommodation for the attendants. As such, it will be necessary for the attendants to have a clear picture of the financial planning that they will need when coming to the city. The cost of a flight ticket (return ticket) may vary depending on the airline company that one chooses and the class. For the economy class, the cost will be about USD 380 for those travelling from Riyadh. Those who will be using business class, the cost will be slightly higher at USD 590. The cost is slightly different for those travelling from Dubai and Oman. It is advisable for the attendants to look for better deals offered by different airline companies.

The attendants are advised to book for their accommodation before leaving their home country. The city of London is very business, and it attracts visitors from all over the world. As such, sometimes the hotels might be fully booked. The organisers are ready to help the visitors to book for good hotels for the entire period that the conference will be running. The visitors will be required to pay for the hotels directly through online platforms. The cost of hotels varies depending on the class that one desires. Some hotels can be as cheap as USD 260 per night for a single occupant. For those who want five-star hotels that offer premium services, then one should be ready to pay between USD 70-120 depending on the location and the kind of services they offer. The visitors should also have some extra cash just in case they may want to visit some parts of the city before or after the conference. The cost of hiring a taxi is relatively low compared to other neighbouring cities. However, visitors should know that the cost directly depends on the destination. The organisers will only be financially responsible for the activities taking place during the conference. Snacks will be offered to all the attendants during the conference.

Health, safety, equality, and diversity consideration

When travelling to London, there are a number of issues that the travellers should put into consideration to ensure that they not only stay safe but also enjoy their stay in the country. The issue of health is of great importance because it is not the intention of the organisers for any of the attendants to get sick during the conference. According to Woods and Urwin (2010), the city of London is currently under no threat of a major disease outbreak that can be spread to the visitors. The level of cleanliness in the city has helped in fighting some of the contagious diseases that may have a serious impact on these visitors. A report by Frost (2001) shows that heart attack, cancer, dementia, digestive disease, and diabetes are the top killers in this city. These are diseases which cannot be transmitted to the attendants during their stay because they are not communicable. They are lifestyle diseases that take time and poor lifestyle to manifest itself. Dietary issues may not be a concern for the visitors because most of the hotels offer Arabic cuisines.

The United Kingdom has some of the finest healthcare facilities in the world, and most of them are located in London. For visitors, they should not be concerned about the availability of healthcare services. However, they should be reminded that they will have to pay for the medical services whether they visit public or private hospitals. Private hospitals are more expensive than in public hospitals. The travellers should also understand that the weather conditions in the Middle East are very different from that in London. The city has very low temperatures during winter, and it is advisable for the visitors to have proper clothing that can protect them from the low temperatures. Alternatively, they can purchase these clothes once they are in the city.

Safety is another major issue of concern that the attenders of this conference need to understand. The city of London is one of the safest in the world. The city is planned in a way that makes it easy for law enforcement agencies to ensure that the residents are safe at all times. There are numerous CCTV cameras along the streets and in other strategic places to help enhance the safety and security of the residents. According to Woods and Urwin (2010), the level of crime in the United Kingdom is very low. This is partly due to low rates of unemployment. The security agencies are also prompt when it comes to responding to any distress call both in the daytime and at night. However, the organisers cannot guarantee the attendants of this conference of their absolute security. A number of factors may influence the level of safety of the residents of the city. London is active both day and night. In case the attendants decide to visit nightclubs, they should be extra vigilant, especially after taking alcohol. It is likely that their judgments may be impaired after taking alcohol, and unscrupulous individuals may take advantage of them. If any of the attendants plan to take alcohol, it is recommended that they do so while in their hotels because they will always be protected by the officers at these facilities. Most of the hotels also have facilities specifically designed for the disabled so people with disabilities will be adequately taken care of during their stay in the country.

The issue of equality will also have to be put into consideration by the attendants of this mini-conference. The United Kingdom has a social structure where men and are considered equal. This is something that is yet to be achieved in most of the Arabic states such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (Lefkowitz 2003). In these Arabic states, men are still superior to women, and most of the businesses are run by men. It is expected that the conference will be dominated by men. However, the visitors must be ready for a diversified environment while in this city. They should expect some of the organisers to be women. Above all, they should know that some of the main speakers in this conference are accomplished women who have registered impressive performance both as public servants and private entrepreneurs. Others are top executives in some of the leading multinationals in this city. They should be accorded respect not just because of the knowledge that they have, but also because the socio-cultural environment in this country demands that both men and women be treated equally.

London, just like most of the leading cities in Europe and North America, is highly diversified. The diversity is caused by immigration by people from different parts of the world. Once they come to this city, some of them often try to retain their practices and beliefs that they had learnt before coming to the city. That is why, although the majority of the residents of London are Christians, other religious groups also exist. People of different races also exist. There are Whites, Blacks, Chinese, Indians, Arabs and other races in this city. The most important thing is that Londoners have come to appreciate this diversity. Issues of race, religion, country of origin, or any other such demographical factors are no longer used as a measure of people worth. For instance, the current mayor of London, Sadiq Khan, is of Indian decent. His grandparents immigrated to London. He and his entire family are Muslims. These factors make him a member of the minority group. However, it did not stop him from becoming the mayor of the city. It is a clear indication that the Londoners have learnt how to embrace diversity. They consider diversity their strength instead of using it as a divisive factor.

Overview of the digital marketing campaign

This conference can only be considered a success if it ends up attracting the targeted investors and convincing them to invest in the city of London. As such, it will be necessary to advertise this programme, especially in a platform that will be accessible to the target audience. Mass media marketing will not be relevant because the targeted audiences are not currently staying in London or in the United Kingdom at large. They are citizens of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. When planning a promotional campaign, it will be important for the planners to come up with a strategy that will help them ensure that the message reaches the target audience in their current places of stay.

The digital marketing campaign will be very appropriate for this conference as it seeks to attract an appropriate target audience. Using social media will be one of the best strategies for passing the message to the target audience. Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube have a massive following all over the world. Using these three media platforms to reach the target audience will help ensure that the message reaches them as desired. Although it will be expected that most of the attendants will be people who have some level of command of the English language, it will be necessary to use a language that is popular in this region when advertising. The messages will need to be translated into Arabic so that the audience will have higher chances of understanding it. Even those with limited command of English will be able to understand the message. The animated image below can be used to help them understand the beauty of this city.

GIF Image of London City.
GIF Image of London City. Source (London 2016).

The team can also use recorded sound about investment in London that can help attract the targeted audience to participate in this study. The following audio-visual may be very appropriate (Business and Investment Opportunities in London, 2016).

How to motivate the team

The team involved in organising this mini-conference will need some form of motivation to ensure that they give their best towards the success of this project. The team leader will need to explain the relevance of this conference to the team members and make them appreciate its need. They have to understand how the conference will be beneficial to the country, the city, and to them as individual participants. Given that they will spend their time and energy undertaking various tasks before, during, and after the conference, some form of reward may be necessary to motivate them.

Leadership styles to be used

Closely related to motivation is the leadership style that will be involved in this project. The leader will need to employ a participatory leadership strategy where everyone is actively involved in finding answers to issues that may arise in the project. The leader must understand that to achieve success, it is necessary to allow individuals involved in the project to take active roles and to participate in the decision-making process.

Conference Session

At this stage, it is necessary to develop a plan of how individual activities will be carried out when the conference begins. The brochure that will be used in this conference should have all the details in it. The front cover of the brochure should be something like the one below.

Appropriate brochure cover page.
Figure 1: Appropriate brochure cover page. Source (Buckley 2016, p. 1).

The following table shows a timeline of activities that will be carried out during the investment conference in London. Some adjustments may be made as and when it will be necessary.

Table 1: The agenda.

Time Event
Monday 4thJuly 2016
08:00-10:00 am Registration and breakfast
10:00-12:00 pm Opening remarks and opening keynote speaker (Mr Sadiq Khan-the Mayor of London)
12:00-02:00 pm Luncheon and Entertainment
02:00-04:00 pm Entertainment and exhibitions
Tuesday 5thJuly 2016
08:00-10:00 am Breakfast at the exhibition hall
10:00-12:00 pm General session (Ms Joan Smiles)
12:00-02:00 pm Luncheon and Entertainment
02:00-04:00 pm Keynote presentation (Mr James Smart)
Wednesday 6thJuly 2016
08:00-10:00 am Breakfast at the exhibition hall
10:00-12:00 pm Keynote presentation and discussion (Charles Armstrong)
12:00-02:00 pm Luncheon and Exhibition
02:00-04:00 pm Closing General Session

It is the expectation of the organisers that the attendance in this conference will be as per the expectation. However, based on the past cases, it is expected that most of the attendants will make an effort not to skip the last two days of the conference because of the belief that most important issues and often discussed and presented on these days. The graph below shows the possible attendance that is expected at this conference.

Conference attendance.
Figure 2: Conference attendance.

Based on the promotional campaign in the digital platform that will be employed by the organisers, it is expected that the attendance will be about 99% of the total targeted population. On the first day of the conference, it is expected that about 89% of the registered participants will be present. This number will rise to 97% on the second day, and finally 99% on the last day.

The brochure will have a brief analysis of the background of the three key speakers. The first key speaker is the mayor who will come to the conference specifically to welcome the investors to London and to make them understand that the socio-political and economic environment of the city is very conducive for the foreign investors. The other two key speakers are investors in different industries who will be sharing their experiences and insights in their respective industries and what the investors should expect if they finally make the decision to come to London. During general sessions, participants will be allowed to ask the presenters questions that may allow them to understand the investment environment in this city. Other than the three key speakers, there will be other speakers from different industries that will help the investors understand what it takes to invest in London. At the exhibition hall, individual investors will be able to interact with experts in various industries who can provide them with the information they need about a specific industry. The sessions are important because it leads to the development of business networks.

Conference evaluation

When the conference is concluded, it is often necessary to conduct an evaluation to determine how successful it has been and areas of strength and weaknesses that should be addressed so that future conferences can be improved as per the suggestions made. In this section, the researcher will look at how the evaluation will be conducted at the end of this conference.

Evaluation methodology

According to Scheela and Isidro (2009), when evaluating the performance level of a conference, there are a number of approaches that can be taken. The first approach is to directly ask the participants how they view the level of success of the conference. The participants will be allowed to give their views about the conference. They will be encouraged to point out specific strengths and weaknesses in the conference and whether or not their expectations were met. The information can be collected from them using a simple questionnaire that can be administered immediately after the end of the last day of the conference. The information can be analysed using mathematical tools to evaluate the performance of the conference. Another approach may involve evaluation done by the team of organisers. The organisers can be asked to evaluate the level of satisfaction of the participants and how well everything worked out as per their plans.

These organisers understand the primary objectives of this conference, and they were involved in every activity in the project from the beginning. As such, they are in a better position to give an informed opinion about how successful each of the processes was in the entire project. They can also help in determining if the resources were used optimally without compromising quality in the conference. The organisers can also use another strategy of determining the impact of the conference on the investors in terms of their view about investing in this city. For the attendants to come all the way from the Middle East and accept to incur all the costs associated with their travel and stay in London, they must be having the capacity and desire to invest in this city. As such, if the conference was a success, it would be expected that the attenders will start making inquiries on how to start their investment locally soon after the conference. If the number of attendants who decide to implement what was discussed in the conference is high, then the conference will be considered to have been successful.

Sample questionnaire

The team of evaluators will need to collect data from the participants to determine how successful the process was and any adjustments that will be necessary. They will need a questionnaire. The following is a sample questionnaire that can be used in this project.

  1. How would you rate the performance of this conference? {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}. {5}. [where 1 is very poor and 5 is excellent]
  2. Were your specific expectations met? Yes, No.
  3. What were the main strengths of this conference?
  4. What are some of the major weaknesses of the conference?
  5. Do you believe you will implement the issues discussed in this conference?
  6. What are your suggestions for improvement of this conference?

Evaluation of data collected

Once the data is collected from the respondents, it will have to be evaluated to help in determining how successful the conference was in the view of the participants. The data collected will be coded into an excel spreadsheet for the purpose of analysis. The information will be analysed mathematically after assigning the responses numerical values. The outcome of the analysis will be presented in the form of graphs, charts, and figures for easy interpretation. The outcome will show the level of success of this project.

Reflection on the conference

This is one of the many conferences that will be undertaken. As such, it is important to have a reflection on this project to determine how other conferences will be conducted in a better manner. When reflecting on this conference, it should start from the analysing the objectives. The team and their leaders should review what the conference was expected to achieve. After reviewing the objectives, they should look at how well these objectives have been achieved. If something did not go as was expected, they should try and investigate what went wrong and what can be done to correct the mistakes that were made in the future. They should also look at the successes of the conference. They should look at what was done right and how it was done so that it can be repeated in the future. The overall impact of the conference should also be reviewed. In such a conference, it is not only the foreign visitors that should benefit. Local upcoming entrepreneurs should also be in a position to benefit from the project. The project should also help them understand the market dynamics, opportunities, and ways through which they can take maximum advantage of the existing market opportunities.

Suggestions for improvement of future conferences

As mentioned above, it is expected that this team will have to organise a number of similar conferences that may target other foreigners or local investors. As Peck (2012) suggests, there should be growth in the manner in which these conferences are organised. In this context, growth refers to a situation where mistakes of the past are not repeated, and successes of the past are amplified. It will be necessary for the team to look at areas where they feel things did not work as per the expectations and make relevant suggestions. Suggestion for improvement of future conferences can be accurately made by the end of this conference.

Reference list

Buckley, N 2016, PEI-PRI Responsible Investment Forum 2016, Web.

Business and Investment Opportunities in London 2016, Web.

Cunha, F & Heckman, J 2009, ‘Investing In Our Young People’, Rivista Internazionale Di Scienze Social’, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 387-417.

Frost, M 2001, ‘London’s Transport: Investing for Sustainability’, Area, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 92-94.

Jenson, J 2004, ‘Changing the Paradigm: Family Responsibility or Investing in Children’, The Canadian Journal of Sociology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 169-192.

Lefkowitz, D 2003, ‘Investing in Emotion: Love and Anger in Financial Advertising’, Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 71-97.

London 2016, animation recording, GIF, Web.

Peck, S 2012, ‘Who owns London’s skyline’, The World Today, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 34-35.

Perrini, F, Salvi, A & Teti, E 2008, ‘Investing in Art Movements: The Case of Surrealist Paintings’, International Journal of Arts Management, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 27-39.

Scheela, W & Isidro, E 2009, ‘Business Angel Investing in an Emerging Asian Economy’, The Journal of Private Equity, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 44-56.

Woods, C & Urwin, R 2010, ‘Putting Sustainable Investing into Practice: A Governance Framework for Pension Funds’, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 1-19.

Yach, D, Brinchmann, S & Bellet, S 2001, ‘Healthy Investments and Investing in Health’, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 191-198.

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