Investor’s Role in Creating Culture of Excellence

Abstract

This study shows that at the present, the U.A.E construction industry is severely lacking in terms of proper employer-employee engagement in that the higher-ups within the company neglected to implement any form of IIP standardization or talent management practices that did not involve members of the upper management team. Employees were considered “expendable” based on their perception due to the lack of training, empowerment, or even consideration as to whether sufficient advancement opportunities were in place. All of this translates into a lack of sufficient IIP standardization with the U.A.E construction industry which hampers its capacity to create client satisfaction through proper customer service since employees within the various construction companies simply lack sufficient job satisfaction to take the initiative.

We will write a
custom essay
specifically for you

for only $16.05 $11/page
308 certified writers online
Learn More

This, when combined with the “top-down” management style utilized regionally which differs greatly from the collaborative approach advocated by IIP severely constrains and limits the capacity of workers to implement sufficient customer service measures due to the stringent methods of management which focus on a limited and overly strict view of work which allows little in the way of independent action by average workers. These factors combined to constrain the U.A.E’s construction industry resulting in a limitation of its capacity to satisfy its clients beyond meeting construction deadlines and project specifications.

Introduction

Between the period of 2000 to 2007, the U.A.E experienced a surge in growth brought about through the region’s oil wealth as well as through internal initiatives for the development of the region into an economic and tourism powerhouse. Such a goal has been largely successful as evidenced by the considerable infrastructure projects that dot the landscape at the present. However, despite such growth studies such as those by Foreman (2009) question whether it came at the cost of the future of the local construction industry. Foreman (2009) points to the 2008 financial crisis and the resulting stalling or outright abandonment of various construction projects in the region (mainly in Dubai). In this situation, Al-Joburi et al. (2012) explain that the stalling and abandonment of local construction projects was a result of two specific factors, one of which was out of the hands of the local construction industry while another could have been resolved resulting in fewer cases where projects remained half-completed. The first problem was the sudden financial downturn which collapses the financial assets of numerous banks around the world (Wiles 2007, p. 30-31).

This problem could not have been avoided nor resolved quickly given the state of global financial markets at the time. The second aspect of the problem lies in a lack of sufficient international confidence in the local construction industry brought about by a “disconnect” so to speak between client and contractor. In the Shekaran (2008) study, it was seen that various clients of stalled and delayed projects within Dubai and other parts of the U.A.E were contacted and asked what influenced their decisions. Aside from the obvious financial concerns, they explained that they simply lacked confidence in the various local construction industries. Through the study of Tsai & Mcgill (2011) which delved into consumer confidence in particular companies, it was seen that a lack of confidence was inherently connected to customer satisfaction with a company which in turn was influenced by a customer’s overall experience while conducting a transaction with them. Taking this into consideration, it can thus be assumed that there is an inherent issue with the customer service segment of the U.A.E construction industry which impacts consumer confidence. It is based on this that this paper will investigate the factors that facilitate good customer experiences, what encourages companies to take the initiative in providing such services and why is it lacking in the case of the U.A.E construction industry.

Background of the study

Rob and Pablo, the co-proprietors of SNOG (a chain of U.K. based yogurt shops), mention that the secret behind their success lies not only in the type of product they sell but rather in the way in which they make each transaction an “experience” for their customers. What these two entrepreneurs are referring to is the general ambiance and “feel” that permeates a particular store or shopping area. Studies such as those by Jones (2012) indicate that consumer patronage of particular retail locations is influenced not only by the products that are being sold but the experience they garner from shopping at a particular location.

Chamorro and Furnham (2010) mention that the concept of “experience” has increasingly being brought to the forefront of business planning for stores, restaurants, and a variety of establishments due to the correlation between experience and repeat patronage. The concept of construction and customer service is normally not synonymous with each other given that daily customer interactions are not an aspect of the construction business as well as the generally adversarial relationship that at times exists between clients and construction companies. However, studies such as those by Grey (2009) explains that the limited level of direct interaction between a construction company and its client necessitates a greater degree of effective customer interaction. Such a task involves better methods of improved communication and collaboration resulting in better customer-client relations.

From the point of view of Koen and Maaike (2011), contractors for construction projects need to become more proactive in terms of providing the services a client wants given the potential for repeat business, word of mouth popularity as well as the development of a long term and satisfying business relationship. Merely receiving a construction contract and implementing it is only half of the story from the perspective of Vithessonthi and Schwaninger (2008). What is necessary is to create a proper “experience” for the client wherein contractors keep the client up to date regarding the status of the project, whether they would need additional services, as well as enabling them to realize the various nuances that go into the construction process.

Get your
100% original paper
on any topic

done in as little as
3 hours
Learn More

By doing so clients are reassured regarding the construction process and will remember such a reassuring experience compared to other instances involving hiring a contractor resulting in a greater likelihood of hiring the contractor where the client felt the best experience. However, it should be noted that there is no magic bullet so to speak when it comes to treating clients. There is no single appropriate method when it comes to properly create a good construction experience and, as such, it is necessary to treat each client differently with excellent communication and collaborative efforts (Lloyd and Mey 2010, pp. 1-12). The reason such aspects have been brought up is due to various reports of a lack of sufficient IIP initiatives in the U.A.E especially in the case of the construction industry. It is based on this that an investigation will be conducted involving the use of IIP within the U.A.E, its impact on organizations, and whether its implementation within the context of the U.A.E’s construction industry would result in better customer satisfaction.

What are investors in people?

The main focus of Investors in People (IIP) is the transformation of business performance through the use of the employees within the organization. In essence, IIP is a framework for improving a company/organization’s business performance by linking staff development to that organization’s business objectives (Bertrand 2012, pp. 4-6). As indicated by Christelis & Georgarakos (2013) four characteristics are in demand within a technology-oriented enterprise, namely: high market responsiveness, fast developments, low cost, and finally high levels of creativity, innovation, and efficiency. What must be understood though is that such characteristics are dependent upon the type of employee teams that are the backbone of the company. This shows the importance of investing in an organization’s employees since they ultimately determine the overall performance of a company within a competitive market environment. The processes that are a part of IIP are ultimately a means of strengthening the connections between proper management practices, training company employees, a company’s business goals, and the development of that particular organization’s performance and business strategies (to a certain degree it also means obtaining a certain degree of recognition for implementing IIP which is a brand that is known nationally within the U.K.).

This is where the concept of talent management enters the picture. Talent management can be described as the process by which a company develops an employee’s skills throughout their time within the company to take on a variety of job roles, as well as to manage their progress up the corporate ladder through a variety of leadership roles (Flaxington 2013, pp. 16-18). This process also necessitates a reduction in employee “churn rates” which requires the retention of talent within the company to reduce costs associated with training new employees and ensuring that talented individuals do not go to potential rivals within the same industry. What must be understood is that improving and retaining talent within any company is crucial for the success of a business due to how talented individuals are drivers for high performance and improved operational processes within a company. It is not the quantity but rather the quality of a company’s workers that drives success no matter the type of business model or the popularity of a product.

Rationale

The rationale for this study is the necessity of investigating the identified lack of sufficient customer satisfaction in the U.A.E construction industry. Without a sufficient investigation taking place, this industry may likely continue to prolong such an adverse form of business behavior which could negatively impact the impression of foreign investors regarding the viability of investing in construction projects in the U.A.E.

This study aims to

To examine the extent to which IIP standardization has been applied within the U.A.E construction industry as well as what factors influence the application of customer satisfaction through the use of customer service initiatives.

The Objectives of this study

  1. To analyze the culture of different organizations in the U.A.E and application of IIP standard.
  2. Importance of IIP standard Globally ( advantages & disadvantages )
  3. The Impact of IIP standard on creating a culture of excellence
  4. The direct and indirect impact of IIP standard on customer satisfaction.

Conceptual framework

From a methodological perspective, I have chosen the case study approach coupled with a focus group to better understand the impact of investing in employees to create a culture of excellence for better customer satisfaction. The value of a case study and the importance of a case study to me as a researcher is that it allows the researcher the opportunity to closely scrutinize a very narrow subject. “A case study is the study of the particularity and complexity of a single case, coming to understand its activity within important circumstances.” (Stake, 1995) I hope to use an epistemological approach to the case study portion of the research. Being able to closely interact with the study participants will allow me to better understand the processes and procedures utilized by local companies. By understanding all options available to local companies in creating better customer service and closely interacting with the various employees and managers of the companies examined, the researcher hopes to make some definitive conclusions as to what processes can be implemented to create better customer satisfaction.

Nature of the study

One major advantage of qualitative research, as opposed to quantitative research, is that the researcher can explore the subject matter contained on an in-depth and personal level. While both types of research can lead to great strides in the understanding of subject matter, qualitative research offers more insight and provides a forum regarding the “human story” of the subject. This qualitative study is divided into two separate components. The first component consists of interviewing active-duty employees and managers from previously selected companies while the second component involves an analysis of data from peer-reviewed research regarding IIP usage in various companies.

We will write a custom
essays
specifically
for you!
Get your first paper with
15% OFF
Learn More

Scope and limitations

The independent variable in this study consists of the academic literature that will be gathered by the researcher for the literature review while the dependent variable will consist of the responses gained from the employees and managers that will be recruited for this study. It is anticipated that through a correlation between the literature on the current state of IIP implementation within the U.A.E and the responses of the managers and employees, the researcher will in effect be able to make a logical connection regarding the current effectiveness of IIP utilization within the U.A.E

Overall, the data collection process is expected to be uneventful; however, some challenges may be present in collecting data involving programs and current practices that are to be utilized in this study. Such issues though can be resolved through access to online academic resources such as EBSCO hub, Academic Search Premier, Master FILE Premier, Newspaper Source Plus, and AP News Monitor Collection. Other databases consulted for this topic include Emerald Insight, Academic OneFile, Expanded Academic ASAP, General OneFile, Global Issues in Context, Newsstand, Opposing Views in Context, popular magazines as well as other such online databases which should have the necessary information. Relevant books were also included in the review. Furthermore, websites such as The Economist.com have several online articles that contain snippets of information that should be able to help steer the study towards acquiring the necessary sources needed to justify asserted arguments. It must be noted that the time constraint for this particular study only allows structured interviews with an unrepresentative number of people, and also a limited amount of flexibility when conducting the interview

The main weakness of this study is in its reliance on interview results as the primary source of data to determine the general opinion of employees and managers. There is always the possibility that the responses could be false or that the person in question does not know anything at all about what the researcher is talking about. While this can be resolved by backing up the data with relevant literature, it still presents itself as a problem that cannot be easily remedied.

Hypothesis

Lack of sufficient IIP standards in the form of training, talent management, job satisfaction, career advancement, and proper managerial practices has led to insufficient standards of customer service in the U.A.E’s construction industry which created customer dissatisfaction due to low levels of communication and collaboration between client and contractor.

Structure of the dissertation

The dissertation will consist of the following parts:

Chapter 1 will contain the introduction, background of the study, the study limitations as well as its aims, objectives, and methodology that will be utilized in the study as well as how data will be collected.

Chapter 2 will consist of a literature review.

Chapter 3 will contain the results of the study and will discuss the implications of the results.

Need a
100% original paper
written from scratch

by professional
specifically for you?
308 certified writers online
Learn More

Chapter 3 will consist of the conclusion and recommendation section of the paper.

Research methodology

This section aims to provide information on how the study will be conducted and the rationale behind employing the discussed methodologies and techniques towards augmenting the study’s validity. In addition to describing the research design, the theoretical framework, and the population and sample size that will be used in this study, this section will also elaborate on instrumentation and data collection techniques, validity and reliability, data analysis, and pertinent ethical issues that may emerge in the course of undertaking this study.

Research framework

The research will correlate the views of employees and managers with their current experiences in their respective companies to properly determine whether the current methods used in their offices are effective in terms of creating great customer service practices and improves the capacity of employees to work. Thus, the following questions will guide the study to examine the identified issues:

  1. What is going on?
  2. What is the main problem within the industry for those involved?
  3. What is currently being done to resolve this issue?
  4. Are there possible alternatives to the current solution?

The researcher will utilize grounded theory during the data analysis stage of the study, the research will seek to determine the current effectiveness of the IIP process, whether significant problems exist, what local companies are doing to address such issues and, if possible, develop alternatives to current methods have been considered. The researcher will design the research questions in such a way that they delve into the opinions of the employees and managers to better understand what factors influence their views on IIP standards.

The needed information will be extracted through a carefully designed set of questions whose aim is to determine how a particular person’s experience with IIP standards affects the way they handle customers and whether, in their opinion, significant improvements need to be implemented or not. It is assumed by the researcher that there can be an effective correlation between the current problems of companies in the U.A.E in their customer relationship processes and the use/non-use of IIP standards. Through the use of this particular approach in accomplishing the study, the researcher will be able to adequately examine the processes utilized within the companies that will be examined related to encouraging better customer relations and whether such processes are effective based on the data collected. It is expected that by following the indicated framework of approach during the examination process of the paper, the researcher will be able to succinctly address the research objectives of the study.

Role of the researcher

The role of the researcher in this particular study is primarily that of a recruiter and aggregator of data. This takes the form of the researcher being the primary point of contact when it comes to talking with various employees, managers, etc. to obtain the necessary amount of subject data from the various individuals within the areas where recruitment and direct face-to-face interviews will occur. Though it can be expected that there will be some problems involving the language barriers and subsequent translation of what the research subject meant when describing particular events and situations (i.e. when it comes to translating Arabic to English), it is expected that through communication and collaboration with local employees and managers that some relevant means of effective data recording can be accomplished.

It must also be noted that before the start of the data collection process via interviews the researcher will also need to play the role of a “teacher” so to speak to properly coach the person being interviewed regarding the purpose of the study and the various terminologies that will be utilized. This particular aspect of the data collection process is necessary due to the potential that the collected data may not properly conform to the appropriate levels expected of a master level thesis. As such, ensuring that the research subjects are properly informed, reduces the instances where problems may arise related to collected data that has very little relevant information that can be utilized within the study.

Research design

The present study will utilize a primarily qualitative research design to explore the impact of IIP standards and customer relation strategies in addressing the issue of improved business operations in the U.A.E. This methodological approach will objectively answer the key research questions. Sekaran (2006) observed most qualitative studies are either descriptive or experimental. The study will utilize a descriptive correlational approach because participants will be measured once. Furthermore, it is imperative to note that the study will employ a questionnaire/focus group technique to collect participant data from the aforementioned areas indicated in the previous paragraph.

According to Sekaran, a questionnaire/ focus group technique is used when the researcher is principally interested in descriptive, explanatory, or exploratory appraisal, as is the case in this study. The justification for choosing a questionnaire/ focus group approach for this particular study is grounded on the fact that participants will have the ability to respond to the data collection tool by way of self-report, thus, this project will utilize a self-administered questionnaire schedule for purposes of data collection. An analysis of related literature will be used to compare the study findings with other research on the impact of IIP strategies within particular businesses. Such analysis, according to Sekaran (2006), is important in identifying the actual constructs that determine efficient analysis because “it goes beyond mere description of variables in a situation to an understanding of the relationships among factors of interest” (p. 119).

Instrumentation

As mentioned earlier, aside from academic data, this study will utilize a set of questionnaires to examine the perspective of employees and managers within the U.A.E regarding the impact of IIP strategies on their daily interaction with customers. This can consist of a variety of ways ranging from the overall effectiveness of the IIP strategy in detecting and resolving problems in customer relations, to their response time and their rapport with consumers. It is based on this that the research questionnaire will be geared towards members of urban populations and will focus on issues that primarily impact employees and managers who live within the various districts in and around the U.A.E. Another factor that should be taken into consideration is the necessity to choose people who are more aware of IIP standards, proper customer care, and who take a more active part in this process. This can consist of managers of the local companies who will be a part of this study. Cluster sampling will be particularly helpful for this study. This approach will enable the researcher to find the respondents quickly and above all safely.

Data gathering process

the data gathering procedure for the interview will be held over 3 weeks spanning the various districts and companies in and around the U.A.E. In each district, the researcher will spend approximately 3 to 4 days to gather the necessary research data. For the first day, the researcher will orient the necessary manager within the company regarding the purpose of the study and the process of data collection while the next two to three days will be spent arriving at the various organizations that were contacted beforehand to begin the data gather process. The process will be divided into two distinct types of interviews with one focusing on gaining the perspective of employees referring to how their activities impact customer care while the second type of interview will focus on the societal aspect of the activities of employees and how it affected people on an individual basis (i.e. the perception of employees regarding implementing new strategies of customer care). This takes the form of inquiries regarding the ease of talking to customers and managers, whether people have found such strategies have been effective, whether they have been positively or negatively affected etc.

Research subjects

The research subjects for this particular study will consist of individuals recruited from various financial business districts. The individuals who will be utilized in the study must fulfill the following requirements to be considered viable enough to be included:

  1. Must have a high degree of literacy to understand the concepts that the questionnaire and interview entail.
  2. Must have a general awareness regarding the concept of IIP standards and proper customer care
  3. Should be an urban resident of the U.A.E
  4. Should fulfill either one of the following requirements: an academic, a manager, or an employee of a company.
  5. The research subjects should also fall under the age demographic of 23 to 55 years of age to ensure that they have developed sufficient awareness and experience regarding the impact of proper customer care and interaction
  6. Lastly, the research subjects that are included in this examination should not be migrant workers. This ensures that all responses are based entirely on residents which ensures that the responses given are only applicable to the case being examined.

While it may be true that the level of research subject discrimination implemented by the researcher is indicative of a certain degree of undue manipulation of the study results, what must be understood is that due to the low-level literacy and a system of education that is far from ideal, this has, as a result, created a population set that has very little knowledge or even awareness regarding IIP standards, customer care initiatives and a variety of similar topics which would be relevant to the study. Since the researcher intends to analyze the impact of IIP standards and customer care, it would of course be necessary for the research subjects involved to have a certain degree of knowledge regarding this to produce a relevant contribution to the research material. Thus, the level of research subject discrimination is justified in this particular case.

Population

While the recruitment method and type of participants that will be utilized has already been explained, this section will detail the population set from which they will be obtained. On average the population of the U.A.E that is to be a part of this study can be considered as being sufficiently well educated and have access to monetary resources (i.e. the locals). On the other hand, other participants of this study will consist of the minorities who have little in the way of sufficient monetary resources and are not quite as educated as compared to their local counterparts. This is in part due to the minimal “trickle-down effect” wherein a large percentage (60 to 70 percent) of the region’s wealth is isolated to a select few groups within their respective societies. Not only that, public utilities expenditures as well as budget allocations for educational programs are quite low. These combined factors result in the creation of a minority population set that is more likely to commit crime due to a lack of opportunities.

What this means for the research process is that it entails more selective recruitment of individuals that are more in tune with the various aspects related to the concept of IIP standards and customer satisfaction. This in effect justifies the criteria outlined by the researcher regarding research subject selection since the responses must come from individuals that are directly involved and experience the effects of IIP standards and proper customer care.

Study Concerns

This methodology exposes the participants to an assortment of risks that need to be taken into consideration during the research process. The main risk the participants will encounter is if any of their answers that criticize or indicate dissatisfaction with their company’s activity leaks. This may have consequences on the attitude and opinion of company officials towards them and can result in victimization. To eliminate this risk, the responses will be kept in an anonymous location. This way, the only way to access the information will be through a procedure that involves the researcher. The project thus observes research ethics in sampling as well as during the data collection process.

Deciding on the questions to be used in the interviews

The questions for the interviews were based on an evaluation of the research questions and the data and arguments presented in the literature review section. The researcher aimed to develop the questions in such a way that they build upon the material utilized in the literature review. Thus, the questions place a heavy emphasis on confirming the data in the literature review; revealing the current state of IIP standards, customer service, and other contributing factors.

Interview questions

As explained earlier, the methodology that will be utilized within this particular study will be comprised of an evaluation of questionnaire results given to a variety of employees, managers, etc. within the U.A.E to determine the various nuances they experience days when it comes to IIP standards and customer service.

The questions were created based on an assessment of the research question, the data that the researcher would need, and how pertinent they would be in terms of the participants being able to answer them. Also, the research questions will be divided into different sets based on the type of respondent that the researcher was able to get in contact with.

  1. What methods of talent management/employee training/employee empowerment do you currently employ within your company?
  2. How have you addressed the issue of customer satisfaction in your particular industry?
  3. How have you addressed the issue of developing employee motivation within the workplace?
  4. Has your company implemented training programs for employees that coincide with its current goals and aspirations within its market?
  5. How about continuous development programs, has the company implemented programs which create long term careers for its employees?
  6. How has your company addressed the issue of employee “churn” rates (i.e. the number of people leaving the company compared to the amount entering) within the company?
  7. In your opinion what specific management practices are needed to ensure proper methods of talent management?
  8. Does organizational ethics factor heavily into talent management within your company?
  9. What is your opinion on the importance of developing local talent with the company? Do you believe that developing talent leads to better job satisfaction resulting in improved performance?
  10. In your opinion, what are the current limitations of your company in terms of creating happy workers?
  11. Are you aware of IIP? (Investors in People)
  12. Does your company focus on customer service such as communicating and collaborating with clients on regular basis to reassure them of the project?
  13. Do you feel motivated to accomplish “added services” on your volition/initiative for the company without any added pay?
  14. If you had the opportunity what changes would you implement to improve the current HR practices of the company?

Data collection process

Anderson (2004) notes that research that is performed rigorously can lead to more effective practices than decisions based mainly on intuition, personal preferences, or common sense. It is based on this that the researcher will utilize the views garnered through the focus group that will be conducted along with statistic data to develop a sufficient platform from which effective and above all accurate conclusions can be developed. The data collection process will be quite straightforward; several weeks before leaving for the various business districts the researcher will utilize the internet to find businesses, schools, and a variety of other appropriate establishments that appear to be effective locations where the appropriate type of data can be located. Enlisting the services of a language school (or Google Translate if a language school does not have the appropriate type of services) the researcher will compose an introduction letter in both English and the local language of the selected organizations (i.e. in Arabic) to inform the organization of the intent of the researcher and whether it would be possible to conduct a series of interviews based on the attached questionnaire to examine the research topic.

By asking permission before the data collection procedure, ensures that the researcher will not waste time in having to contact the necessary organizations upon arriving and can immediately proceed in collecting the needed data. Before arriving the researcher will also search for a local translator to help in the overall process of communicating with the research subjects that do not speak English. The interviews will be conducted via a focus group. It will also be necessary to assure the participants of the safe storage of information before the interview begins to encourage them to give genuine answers. It was determined by the researcher that responses will be more favorable if the interview is conducted privately.

This approach will mitigate accommodation costs thus making the project more cost-effective. After collecting and analyzing data, the final report, together with recommendations will be presented to the study participants via email to show the impact of their opinions and ensure that responses were utilized in such a way that it complies with views that the participants intended to give out and are completely anonymous thus preventing any possible victimization from occurring.

Evaluating the questionnaire responses

Two methods may be used to score the test, raw score, and relative. Both will be used for comparison in the study. The raw score method is a simple sum of the responses within each scale. This involves merely examining which responses seem similar to each other or which are widely divergent. The relative scoring method compares scales for relative contribution to the overall score. The relative proportion for each scale is found by dividing the individual mean score for the scale by the combined means for all scales. What must be understood is that unlike other types of questionnaires administered through similar studies, this questionnaire does not utilize a score or point system wherein responses are limited to a set amount (i.e. picking from a set of 4,5,6, etc.). The reason behind this is quite simple; the researcher is attempting to gauge the individual accounts of the research subjects in the form of data that involves their accounts and experiences regarding crime prevention.

As such, the resulting answer cannot be quantified in the same way as other forms of information. Do note though that the researcher did take into consideration the use of a generalized research questionnaire form, however, based on the necessity of personal responses it was deemed an insufficient method that would divulge the type of data needed given the necessity of examining individual experiences at the local level.

Thematic analysis will also be used to identify themes. Patton (2002) describes this type of analysis as inductive analysis and states that most qualitative analysis is inductive in the early phases when the researcher is trying to identify categories, patterns, and themes. As such, it is expected that by utilizing the process of reading and re-reading the data, emerging themes within the collected data sets can be identified. Fereday and Muir-Cochrane (2006) point out that thematic analysis can help the researcher to demonstrate rigor. Having other individuals review the transcripts will enable different individuals to form themes from the data (Golafshani, 2003). The researcher will then review these main themes and use this information to assist in establishing the key findings of the study.

This method of data analysis is appropriate for qualitative design studies. Patton (2002) discusses several competencies involved in thematic analysis. One such competency is pattern recognition, the ability to see patterns in a wide array of information. Content analysis involves searching the data for common words or themes. Both of these competencies will be used by this researcher to identify common themes. With such an analysis, the findings will be obtained in an unbiased manner.

Ethical considerations

Possible ethical considerations that may arise through this study consist of the following:

  1. The potential for unintentional plagiarism through the verbatim lifting of information, arguments, and points of view from the researched source material.
  2. The use of unsubstantiated information taken from unverifiable or nonacademic resources (ex: internet articles).
  3. The use of a biased viewpoint on issues may inadvertently result in an alteration of the questionnaire results.
  4. Presentation of data without sufficient corroborating evidence or a lack of citation.
  5. Falsifying the results of the research for the benefit of the initial assumptions of the study.
  6. Using views and ideas without giving due credit to the source.

In addition to seeking approval from the companies involved, a letter of consent will be sent to the head of the program to request individual indulgence and approval in conducting the study. Mailings will be sent to the individual agencies, businesses, etc. explaining the main objective of the study and requesting their consent for participation. Further communication will proceed between those who agree to take part in the survey and the researcher via email to ensure that all individuals understand the requirements for the study. The researcher will also take time to elaborate on the rights of participants during the study process, including the right to informed consent and the right to confidentiality.

Literature review

Introduction to literature

This section reviews and evaluates literature and theories on the use of IIP standardization to attain competitive advantage as well as methods that are often incorporated to increase the overall performance of employees. This section thus discusses various aspects related to motivational practices, the impact of IIP standardization in developing a competitive advantage, management styles as well as current practices involving different organizations in the U.A.E.

Culture of different organizations in the U.A.E

Through the analysis of the Economic sectors: Construction (2003) report, it was seen that the organizational structure of most companies within the U.A.E focused on a more “top-down” approach when it came to dealing with employees and meeting company goals. Such an approach focused less on employee empowerment and more on the delegation of tasks and their subsequent completion. One way of explaining such an aspect can be seen through the study of Martin (2012) which examined the business culture within the U.A.E. Martin (2012) explains that while the U.A.E has become more “international” in terms of its import/export policies, local laws and adjustment of customs to accommodate foreign travelers, it is still insular to a certain degree wherein concepts related to the development of workers as viable assets has yet to truly take hold. Foreman (2012) further explains that it is only in larger or off-shored companies within the country such as the Dusit Thai that the implementation of IIP has been more prevalent.

However, for small to medium-sized companies, there is little in the way of IIP implementation resulting in workers being thought of as resources that are set to perform their roles as dictated by the managing department of the company. Examples of IIP implementation for large companies within the U.A.E can be seen in the Etisalat programs related to employee “empowerment” through positive reinforcement as well as significant internal policies that focus on Corporate Social Responsibility as well as ethical treatment of workers which have been implemented under the IIP framework. Other manifestations of IIP practices within the company take the form of various healthcare and internal methods of investigation and evaluation meant to determine whether employees are being treated properly by their managers.

When it comes to IIP, Etisalat has implemented three distinct methods of skills development, this takes the form of their internal training program meant to increase the knowledge and ability of employees regarding their current job, the future leaders’ program which focuses on developing the up and coming heads of the company and lastly comes the company’s talent pool program. As described by Watts (2012), any staff that participates in overseas projects and succeeds in their respective role will be slated for inclusion into the company’s talent pool. This means that those who willingly participate in self-improvement programs, training sessions, and a variety of other such internal endeavors will be slated for future forms of costly training and promotion. The Etisalat talent pool is a database that contains the names of talented staff from different sections so that when there are any vacancies for senior positions the HR manager will check the talent pool and look for the needed skills and they will nominate a particular individual identified as having the necessary qualities for this new position.

It is based on this that it can be seen that Etisalat rewards workers who show a willingness to improve themselves and show consistent levels of high performance. This also similarly conforms to the various aspects of IIP related to skills development and the implementation of continuous development programs to encourage employees to stay within a company by helping them improve and as a result become more viable for promotion to higher positions within the company and thus improve the organization as a whole resulting in the achievement of company goals within their respective industries. As mentioned earlier, the implementation of such standards is not endemic among local companies and can be considered more of a rarity. Evidence of this can be seen in studies by Construction (2013) which examined the construction industry of Abu Dhabi and Dubai wherein there was next to no development or empowerment of workers and instead what was seen as a high-pressure environment to meet construction deadlines and limit costs. Workers in general were treated poorly in cases involving the construction of noted landmarks such as the Burj Al Arab and the Mall of Dubai.

The reason behind such treatment as explained by Cho (2012) was that a majority of the workers brought in to work on the construction sites within the U.A.E are usually foreign workers. The Special Report: UAE (2013) states that foreign workers are treated much differently than locals resulting in limited opportunities for advancement. This is not limited to low-level construction crews but also extends to lower levels of the construction company’s management division. The “top-down” management style of responsibility delegation “gets things done” so to speak in terms of completing projects and sticking to budgets but there is little in the way of sufficient initiative to develop proper customer satisfaction. The reason behind this can be connected to the lack of sufficient IIP initiatives within local construction companies wherein employees become not mere workers but stakeholders in the company’s continued performance and desire to expand and become competitive within its market niche (Large-scale projects back on the agenda 2012, p. 20). Without sufficient initiative to do so, this results in a lack of “will” to create a proper customer service oriented environment within the construction industry.

Zaneldin (2006) examined cases involving foreign and local ownership of construction projects within the U.A.E. and saw that while local owners were relatively satisfied with the processes utilized in construction, their foreign owners expressed a relative dissatisfaction during the construction phase due to the lack of input on the part of the construction company in terms of informing them regarding the progress of the project, whether there was any need for clarification regarding particular aspects of it as well as recommending possible cost-saving measures that could be implemented (Q&A: Nasser AL-Mansoori 2013, p. 7). The result was that numerous joint projects within the U.A.E needed additional work after construction due to various design modifications and errors in construction that could have been avoided if there was a sufficient level of client-contractor interaction. Economic sectors (2004) delves into this even more by explaining that the main issue when it comes to the U.A.E construction industry is a lack of communication and collaboration between the client and contractor which is the backbone of the customer service process. Foreman (2013) states that this seemingly lack of sufficient service despite the world-class services of local construction companies is only due to the lack of the development of sufficient culture of empowerment wherein there is no initiative to “take things to the next step” so to speak resulting in performance stagnation when it comes to client relations.

Another factor that should be taken into consideration when it comes to the culture of different organizations in the U.A.E is the types of management styles that company managers apply when managing and training their respective employees. What you have to understand is that there are a variety of management styles currently in practice today within the region ranging from the militaristic to the laid back and finally the open management style which focuses on developing an environment where the sharing of ideas is promoted. Each type of management style results in different levels of employee reciprocity such as their responsiveness to given situations, their ability to adapt to new problems, and even their ability to improve themselves. Companies need to take into consideration what management styles are currently in place and how do they relate to what they want in terms of talent management. Do they want employees that are robotic and respond in a manner that is dictated step by step by the company?

Or do they want employees that are creative and imaginative resulting in the development of possible solutions for current internal problems? It is questions such as these that bring up the issue of implementing IIP within a company to ensure that talent management practices are implemented in such a way that it results in competent and effective workers. It must also be noted that some management styles unfairly use the situations of employees to derive every single ounce of performance out of them while at the same time paying them a mere pittance. The final points of interest in this section are instances where serious problems are overlooked in favor of having work continue as usual. This can come in the form of environmentally damaging practices or employee abuse which unfortunately is one of the issues with the U.A.E construction industry at the present. The reason this is important is due to the fact overlooking such factors is highly unethical and would reflect badly on the company if discovered.

What you have to understand is that all the negative factors indicated within this section are indicative of company management practices that result in adverse effects on a company’s talent pool. The more unethical a company’s internal practices are the more likely it is that performance levels would drop and the rate of employee churn would increase resulting in a considerable degree of talent loss for the company. IIP advocates the implementation of ethical company policies for employees since this results in workers that are more willing to do their best for the company. For example, practices which involve making an employee work harder than they should employ ethically dubious methods of operation, as well as other similar factors, are detrimental to IIP practices since they either create a situation where employees are more likely to leave the company or the company would develop employees that are distinctly unethical in their method of working. It is based on this that any examination of a company regarding its talent management practices should involve how they treat their workers and the nature of the ethical codes of conduct of the company.

Importance of IIP standard globally

When examining current corporate methods of operation, it must be noted that companies that practice effective methods of IIP develop a certain degree of competitive advantage over their competitors within the same industry. The reason behind this is quite simple, by retaining talented individuals and increasing their skills and competencies, the company in effect creates a talent pool that can respond to a diverse amount of circumstances and develop methods of innovation that can enable a company to surge ahead of its competition. All of this translates into the development of significant competitive advantage for the company which enables it to outperform its rivals. In his study examining IIP and HR practices and their effects on corporate performance, it was noted by Burgess & Williams (2009) that an employee based competitive advantage manifested itself in improved operational capacities resulting in reduced errors and greater levels of productivity. Fraser (2003) points out that IIP talent management practices help a company to conform to practices related to Six Sigma and other similar methods of increasing operational efficiency while at the same time reducing wasteful practices within the company in the form of hours spent lounging around instead of working.

Similar studies such as those by Hogg, Carter & Dunne (1998) point out that IIP practices create a certain desire in employees to become better in their respective fields through constant training and experience. As a result, this creates a pool of talented employees that can easily respond to the needs of the company quickly and efficiently. From the perspective of Alison & Lorna (2007), competitive advantages achieved through IIP manifests itself in the form of cost savings. What you have to understand is that it is far easier for a company to develop an employee and manage their talent in a specific field than it is to hire externally and incorporate them into the company’s current operational infrastructure (Smith et al. 2002, p. 62). It must also be noted that the period in between incorporating an externally hired new employee, guiding them on what the new position entails, and helping them to ease into the company’s business culture consists of a considerable investment of time and monetary resources. Not only that, during this particular period the company is unable to efficiently provide the necessary services that the vacant position is supposed to accomplish and, as such, this creates the potential for considerable financial losses (IiP successes. 2004, p. 601).

Lastly, externally hired employees have been noted by Bell, Taylor & Thorpe (2001) as having a greater likelihood to shift companies should a better opportunity present itself resulting in the time and effort spent in recruiting and managing this particular individual being wasted. When taking into consideration the sheer size of many of today’s multinational companies, the complex nature of particular positions and the loss in operational efficiency should a vital member of the company resign, this creates a substantial problem for hundreds of companies around the world. It is based on this that applying effective methods of IIP along with sound job satisfaction practices results in a company developing a distinct competitive advantage over its rivals who rely almost entirely on external sources for employees for upper management and higher tier technical positions (Scott 2006, p. 11). Despite the obvious advantages brought about by IIP, it must be noted that even the best IIP practices in the world need to take into consideration the level of motivation that an employee derives from their position. Studies such as those by Reade (2004) indicate that IIP practices are increasingly taking into consideration methods of increasing employee motivation due to the likelihood of an employee resigning due to their dissatisfaction with their job despite all the time and effort the company placed in developing their talents.

The impact of IIP standard on creating a culture of excellence

This example shows how utilizing IIP affects business performance and creates a culture of excellence.
Figure 1. This example shows how utilizing IIP affects business performance and creates a culture of excellence. (Hoque 2008, p. 45).

Based on the research of Hoque (2008), it can be seen that the implementation of IIP standards helps to create a “chain of performance” so to speak (as evidenced by the figure above) which ends in better financial performance for the company in question. At the start of the chain are the HR policies which are subsequently changed as a result of IIP (Hoque 2008, pp. 43-62). These changes have two distinct impacts which help to create a culture of excellence within the company. The first of these changes comes in the form of the creation of a positive organizational social climate (McHenry 2003, p. 7). This manifests itself in the form of higher levels of trust, engagement between employees and different departments as well as better levels of cooperation. In the case of creating a positive organizational social climate, what must be understood is that this is a manifestation of the goal-setting theory developed by Edwin Locke which was introduced in the late 1980s as a means of improving employee performance (Bell, Taylor & Thorpe 2002a, p. 1071-1085). In this theory, Edwin encourages managers to involve the employee in setting the goals of the organization. This makes an individual feel that they are so important to the organization and they are part of running the institution.

After every financial year, employees need to get feedback on their achievements and compare them with the set target to assess their performance (Carrington 2003, p. 5). Employees must be committed to the goal and believe that they are capable of performing tasks. IIP standardization incorporates the “involvement” aspect of goal setting theory by making employees feel that they are not just mere statistics on a worksheet, rather, they are important members of the company who contribute significantly towards its continued improvement (IIP for DCA DLC 2005, p. 18). As a result of manifesting this type of social climate, this makes employees feel more valued which creates an intrinsic motivation to perform at a higher level which in turn boosts the performance of the company. The second aspect of changes to HR policy comes in the form of increases in human capital flexibility. The term human capital in this instance refers to the skills and behaviors of employees that need to be implemented for the organization to change and thrive (Down & Smith 1998, pp. 143-155). This comes in the form of developing employees through in-house training to make them more flexible in terms of being able to take on multiple job roles or be able to accomplish more advanced tasks within the company (IIP framework aims to wake up business 2003, p. 10).

When it comes to managing employees under IIP, what must be understood is that based on Maslow’s theory of needs the motivation of employees tends to change over time and, as a direct result, it would be necessary for the company to change its method of performance management along with these shifting needs. For example, Maslow states that once basic needs are met (i.e. salary and benefits) people tend to move onto satisfying other needs which are their motivating factors. In the case of corporate jobs, this means that employees move on from wanting a job to developing a career. Various studies that have examined Generation Y employees have discovered that a focus on career development and fast promotion are the main motivating factors behind Gen Y workers continuing to be with a company (IIP backs HR to solve the productivity problem 2002, p. 1).

This is in stark contrast to Generation X and the Baby Boomer generation whose higher needs focused on benefits and being with a company for an extended period. It is based on this that companies need to examine what are the main motivating factors within new generations of workers and adjusts their internal policies and operations accordingly to not only attract competent workers but to maintain them as well. Under IIP standardization, this means developing employees to think of their progress with the company and their role as a career and not merely as a job. The only way this can be accomplished is by subsequently investing in the necessary training and development programs which enable employees to “take things to the next level” by attaining more skills and experience resulting in a broader understanding of the company’s operations and their role in it (Study links IIP to bottom-line boost 2008, p. 10).

Through such an understanding, this helps them to better understand what they can do to improve their performance and help the company meet its goals (West 2001, pp. 107-110). Another factor that should be taken into consideration is that aspects related to greater connectedness, better motivation, and the desire by employees to help the company meet its goals can be considered a form of non-financial performance (i.e. unlike direct sales or service, its contribution does not have a definite method of measurement). Based on the study of Bell, Taylor & Thorpe (2002), non-financial performance results in better financial performance for a company given higher rates on returns of the company’s assets (i.e. the performance of its employees). This shows the impact of the IIP standard on creating a culture of excellence in that it creates better financial performance for the company as a whole by modifying its HR practices to create a better workplace culture (Bell, Taylor & Thorpe 2002b, p. 161).

The direct and indirect impact of IIP standard on customer satisfaction

The direct and indirect impact of the IIP standard on customer satisfaction is quite straightforward to interpret. IIP creates an employee culture wherein due to the connection and feeling that employees get wherein they think that what they do is an important function for the company, this, in turn, results in them taking the initiative more often since for them the success of the company is their success as well. Its impact on customer satisfaction takes the form of more collaborative and communicative employees who actively attempt to make the customer experience a great one since they are focusing on providing exemplary service for the company which they represent.

How different management styles affect employee performance and morale

An examination of recent literature examining the causes of low morale within the workplace reveals that in most cases poor leadership is the main cause of the problem. This can come in various forms such as a manager that does not try to establish sufficient rapport with employees, neglecting to address particular issues in the workplace, or a form of management style that employees have an adverse reaction to. Suffice it to say it is a fact that adverse management styles affect employees negatively which has been shown to impact their overall performance (Van Dijk & Van Dick 2009, pp. 143-163).

Studies examining varying degrees of employee performance across several different companies reveal that employees performing the same type of job yet having different kinds of managers results in differing productivity results (Strebel 1996, pp. 86-92). Employees with a manager that attempts to establish sufficient rapport, delegates responsibility appropriately, and commends hard work have been shown to have increased levels of efficiency and quality and compared to employees who are under managers that are distinctly close-minded, standoffish, and don’t take outside opinions into account in their managerial decisions (Joslin et al. 2010, pp.22-43).

From a psychological point of view, it is assumed that positive reinforcement causes employees to look at their work from a decidedly positive point of view and as a result creates a better working environment. Managers that use management styles that are decidedly confrontational and forceful perpetuate decidedly negative working environments where employees become increasingly despondent with the type of work that they are doing. This results in decreasing levels of performance on the part of employees which is further compounded by instances of depression, work-related anxiety, and stress which culminates in high employee churn rates within particular companies (Dam 2008, pp. 313-334).

One particular industry where this is the most evident is the call center industry located in the U.S., India, and the Philippines which services various companies within the U.S. As evidenced by various studies examining high employee churn rates within particular call centers it was noticed that employees that were placed under an overly strict and distinctly close-minded team leader often suffered decreased levels of performance and performed poorly in meeting specific company metrics (Oreg and Cornell 2003, pp. 680-693). On the other hand, agents that were placed under a team leader that was more open, friendly, and delegated responsibility throughout the team further enhancing each position resulted in increased performance, lower employee churn rates, and showed a distinct improvement in being able to meet the set metrics of the company.

Resolving the issue of bad management practices

To resolve the issue of bad management practices causing low employee morale four distinct changes should be implemented to create a positive work environment and thus improve quality and efficiency. The first is creating a sufficient connection between upper management and lower-level employees. It has been noted by numerous studies that there is an inherent need for employees to feel connected to management. This takes the form of having them know that managers know who they are, what their job is, and how they contribute to the company.

Not only that, but this also involves informing employees that upper management is there to help employees should they encounter problems that they are not familiar with or require further assistance in completing (Baer and Brown 2012, pp.60-71). It must also be noted that one of the requirements in creating better connections with employees is spending time with them in the form of regular idea-sharing meeting, lunches, or other forms of interaction that encourage the development of an environment where thoughts and ideas are freely shared in between different levels of the company hierarchy.

The second change that should be implemented is creating sufficient methods of recognition for employees for the type of work that they do. Various studies examining employee attitudes towards work reveal that on average employees want recognition and a certain degree of acknowledgment for the type of work that they do (Hilton and Whiteford 2010, p.435). While this can take the form of varying types of recognition such as certificates or events where they are recognized it is important to utilize such a method since it creates a positive work environment by making employees feel like they are worth something or that they are special (Wu et al. 2012, pp.178-199).

All too often in certain companies, it has been noted that increased levels of employee churn and depression are often connected with the fact that they feel like they are nothing more than a number in a book, unappreciated and unknown. By establishing various methods of recognition creates positive forms of encouragement for employees which makes their jobs much more tolerable and even increases their quality and productivity in light of the type of recognition they received. What must also be understood is that from a psychological point of view acknowledgment acts as a positive reinforcement of workplace attitudes which helps to encourage employees to be better at their jobs despite receiving the same type of pay. It is due to this that relationship management companies such as Convergys often recommend companies to establish various means of employee recognition beyond mere financial compensation to induce greater levels of positive reinforcement and thus encourage better employee performance.

The third type of change that should be implemented to improve workplace practices is to challenge employees by giving them different roles and tasks to improve on the drudgery of everyday work practices (Oreg & Sverdlik 2011, pp. 337-349). This is done by having employees take on distinct leadership roles for certain tasks, giving them different tasks that challenge their knowledge or enable them to acquire new skills that would open new career paths in the future. Such actions often involve instilling a sense of trust in employees wherein managers communicate that they trust the employee to do the job hence the fact they are giving it to them. By doing so this encourages greater employee interest in their job and creates a workforce that has greater knowledge on an assortment of skills which would improve quality and performance levels in workplace environments (Mittal 2012, pp. 64-71).

The final type of change that should be implemented is to deal with bad employees in the workplace to create a good working environment. It has been noted by various HR studies that employees that tend to display various negative behaviors tend to create problems in workplace environments that affect other employees. While such issues are often overlooked by dissociative and non-communicative managers, effective management often involves needing to examine current employee attitudes and employ methods of improvement or termination to prevent such behaviors from occurring (Pardo and Martinez 2003, pp. 148-155). What must be understood is that aside from poor management skills, bad co-workers are often cited as one of the problems regular employees have to deal with and as a result, this leads to either declining levels of performance on their part or even resignation in the worst possible cases. To resolve this issue managers need to regularly examine current workplace environments and determine whether particular employees can be seen as bad influences and act accordingly to prevent problems from cropping up in the immediate future.

Summary

What these studies reveal is that to resolve the issue of customer satisfaction within the U.A.E construction industry, the issue of sufficient job satisfaction needs to be addressed through IIP standardization. It was shown that the issue of job dissatisfaction develops since there is a feeling of skill and work stagnation among employees. As such, this impacts their propensity to take the initiative to be more customer service oriented resulting in a decline in a customer’s experience during the construction phase of the project. To prove such an assertion in the case of this study, the following methodology has been developed to examine aspects of IIP initiatives among the construction companies of the U.A.E.

Conclusion

As observed in this literature review, it was seen that the U.A.E construction industry focused on a more “top-down” approach when it came to dealing with employees and meeting company goals. Such an approach focused less on employee empowerment and more on the delegation of tasks and their subsequent completion. This is not limited to low-level construction crews but also extends to lower levels of the construction company’s management division. The “top-down” management style of responsibility delegation “gets things done” in terms of completing projects and sticking to budgets but there is little in the way of sufficient initiative to develop proper customer satisfaction. The reason behind this can be connected to the lack of sufficient IIP initiatives within local construction companies wherein employees become not mere workers but stakeholders in the company’s continued performance and desire to expand and become competitive within its market niche.

The result of a lack of sufficient IIP creates an initiative gap which limits the capacity of local construction companies to implement proper customer service practices which creates a lack of customer satisfaction. There are insufficient levels of communication and collaboration between client and contractor during the construction phase of projects. Through the focus group sessions with various managers and employees, they presented the notion that a high-stress environment has a connection with increased employee churn rates within particular organizations. They unanimously argued that job satisfaction is an important factor in keeping employees within the company wherein employees that were satisfied with their jobs were more likely to stay despite being within a stressful work environment. The articles that were examined explained that at the present, the U.A.E construction industry is severely lacking in terms of proper employer-employee engagement in that the higher-ups within the company neglected to implement any form of IIP standardization or talent management practices that did not involve members of the upper management team.

Employees were considered “expendable” based on their perception due to the lack of training, empowerment, or even consideration as to whether sufficient advancement opportunities were in place. All of this translates into a lack of sufficient IIP standardization with the U.A.E construction industry which hampers its capacity to create client satisfaction through proper customer service since employees within the various construction companies simply lack sufficient job satisfaction to take the initiative. This, when combined with the “top-down” management style utilized regionally which differs greatly from the collaborative approach advocated by IIP severely constrains and limits the capacity of workers to implement sufficient customer service measures due to the stringent methods of management which focus on a limited and overly strict view of work which allows little in the way of independent action by average workers. These factors combined to constrain the U.A.E’s construction industry resulting in a limitation of its capacity to satisfy its clients beyond meeting construction deadlines and project specifications.

Results and discussion

Introduction

This section examines the results of the data collection process accomplished by the researcher. As such, a comparison will be created between the research data accumulated and the various facts and arguments presented within the literature review section to find any significant correlations between the practices explained by the studies examined and the types of processes implemented within the U.A.E

What methods of talent management/employee training/employee empowerment do you currently employ within your company?

What methods of talent management/employee training/employee empowerment do you currently employ within your company?
Graph 1.

How have you addressed the issue of customer satisfaction in your particular industry?

How have you addressed the issue of customer satisfaction in your particular industry?
Graph 2.

How have you addressed the issue of developing employee motivation within the workplace?

Methods
Graph 3.

Has your company implemented training programs for employees that coincide with its current goals and aspirations within its market?

Yes No
Managers 10 15
Low to Mid Level Employees 20
Others 5

Chart 1.

.How about continuous development programs, has the company implemented programs which create long term careers for its employees?

Yes No
Managers 25
Low to Mid Level Employees 20
Others 5

Chart 2.

How has your company addressed the issue of employee “churn” rates (i.e. the number of people leaving the company compared to the amount entering) within the company?

Addressing Churn rates
Graph 4.

Does organizational ethics factor heavily into talent management within your company?

Yes No
Managers 25
Low to Mid Level Employees 20
Others 5

Chart 3.

Are you aware of IIP? (Investors in People)

Yes No
Managers 5 20
Low to Mid Level Employees 20
Others 5

Chart 4.

Does your company focus on customer service such as communicating and collaborating with clients on regular basis to reassure them of the project?

Yes No
Managers 25
Low to Mid Level Employees 20
Others 5

Chart 5.

Do you feel motivated to accomplish “added services” on your volition/initiative for the company without any added pay?

Yes No
Managers 5 20
Low to Mid Level Employees 20
Others 5

Chart 6.

Analysis of results

Based on the responses given by the managers, they presented the notion that a high-stress environment has a connection with increased employee churn rates within particular organizations. They unanimously argued that job satisfaction is an important factor in keeping employees within the company wherein employees that were satisfied with their jobs were more likely to stay despite being within a stressful work environment. The explained that at the present, the U.A.E construction industry was severely lacking in terms of proper employer-employee engagement in that the higher-ups within the company neglected to implement any form of IIP standardization or talent management practices that did not involve members of the upper management team.

Lower tier managers and employees within the company were considered “expendable” based on their perception due to the lack of training, empowerment, or even consideration as to whether sufficient advancement opportunities were in place. As a result, the managers explained, this impacted employee motivation wherein there was little initiative to accomplish tasks beyond what was assigned to them. Not only that, due to the “top-down” management style that was implemented in the various construction companies that were examined, actions that were considered “out of the norm” or did not specifically follow the instructions that were presented were often met with reprisal from upper management due to their requirement of strict adherence to the instructions that were given. This lack of independence in terms of creating positive initiatives that may help the company as well as the minimal, if not absent, level of training within the construction industry of Abu Dhabi is indicative of the absence of IIP within this specific industry.

The managers also mentioned that as a result of the workplace environment, the construction industry within Abu Dhabi experiences a considerable churn rate of employees wherein employees do not stay long with the company due to the lack of perceived opportunities. In the study, the researcher examined the high churn rates within the industry wherein nearly 70% of hired and trained employees do not stay with a construction company over extended periods (i.e. limited to 1 to 2 years). They noted that lower-tier workers felt that they were not involved in the organization (i.e. they felt they were treated more like a statistic than an actual person) and, as a result, such feelings impacted the quality of their work. This presents the notion that was mentioned in the literature review portion of the study that job satisfaction has an impact on employee retention as well as the subsequent output of their work. The employees that were interviewed point out that factors related to tight managerial controls (i.e. the use of demanding construction schedules), low salaries, lack of sufficient diversity in tasks, the scheduling system utilized (i.e. alternating night and day shifts) as well as a lack of appreciation for the work that they do contribute significantly to employee displeasure with their jobs and a greater likelihood of leaving.

Such data were collected utilizing 50 interviews involving construction workers, lower-tier managers, and various other workers within the construction industry of the U.A.E. The results are indicative of the fact that regardless of educational status or type of employment, job satisfaction in terms of actually enjoying one’s job and working environment is essential in retaining employees and creating people who enjoy their job. As mentioned earlier within the study, employees that lack sufficient motivation with their current position have been shown as being more likely to leave for “greener pastures” as compared to employees that have been sufficiently motivated by their company through IIP standardization.

This also impacts the level of customer service that a company is capable of doing since customer service is considered an “added benefit” that is applied when companies want to be able to create a great customer experience which could lead to product patronage. The results showed that while managers were aware of what customer service is, its application in the construction field was fairly absent aside from negotiations before the construction wherein the budget, bonus for early completion, and requirements for the project were outlined beforehand. The managers explained that to resolve the issue of service quality as well as retain quality employees within the construction industry, it is necessary to add a degree of professionalism, continuous challenges, proper training as well as sufficient career development for the workers. Such aspects are attributes of IIP which some managers within the U.A.E construction industry were not aware of yet recognized the need for such factors in order improve customer service in the form of better workers that have more initiative and feel that the success of the company is their success.

Conclusion

What this study has revealed is that to resolve the issue of a lack of customer service within the U.A.E construction industry, the issue of sufficient job satisfaction needs to be addressed.

Conclusion and recommendation

Introduction

This section delves into the conclusions and recommendations of the researcher as a result of the investigation that was conducted in this study.

Established relationships of theories and practice

The interview with the managers and employees revealed that the construction industry acknowledges the fact that to create a culture of excellence for customer satisfaction, it would be necessary to develop internal practices and policies that focus on investing in employees through proper talent management practices since, in the manager’s words, “motivation is a key success factor in any organization since it helps the employees to perform more and be more responsible and cooperative to serve the company and enables them to participate in achieving the company’s vision and mission”. Based on the information provided by the interviewees as well as the literature review, the processes by which a company goes about doing this is through increasing job motivation in the form of an employee training program, a wellness program, a performance dialogue with managers, and employing methods of empowerment for their employees. This means utilizing IIP standardization as the crux in developing employees to take more initiatives and, as a result, enable them to implement aspects of customer service as a means of “taking things to the next step”.

Theoretical Solutions to the Issue

Herzberg factor theory

factor theory by Herzberg differs slightly from the initial concept conceived by Maslow wherein instead of just motivators Herzberg advocates that companies should implement satisfiers to both retain employees and have them work better. In the case of managing performance and IIP in creating customer satisfaction, Factor theory comes into play as the basis by which companies create policies that enable an employee to feel satisfied at their job while at the same time makes them want to work harder (Conley 2007, p. 16). Motivating factors in this particular case which encourage higher performance can come in the form of in-house training, giving employees a more diversified job role to remove boredom and complacency as well as implementing some method of having them see the “big picture” wherein they feel that their work is important and contributes significantly to the greater whole of the company. In the case of satisfaction, it is often the case that companies need to employ various types of job benefits, reducing work-based stressors as well as creating management policies that encourage rather than discourage employees. Should such factors be put in place according to Herzberg, then it is likely that employees would work harder and be more likely to stay longer with the company.

Vroom expectancy theory

On the other end of the spectrum is Vroom’s expectancy theory which has the fundamental belief that people’s behavior is shaped by a conscious choice. In the case of managing performance and IIP in creating customer satisfaction within a company, this comes in the form of an approach that states that employees can be motivated to work harder and better for the company is if there is a sufficient positive correlation between the effort they put into the work done and reward they are given. Interpretations of the Vroom expectancy theory within the current corporate landscape of the U.A.E construction industry come in the form of performance-based incentives utilizing metrics.

Metrics can be defined as a certain set of parameters that judge the performance of an employee based on a predetermined level of ideal performance set by the company. As such, motivation practices utilizing metrics usually come in the form of significant bonuses for hard work and, as seen in the call center industry, fast promotions based on the level of performance as determined by metrics. The advantage of this particular system is that rewards and promotions are no longer a vague and shadowy system that employees are no longer aware of, rather, they can measure their performance and can expect a certain level of reward based on how they have performed. This is one of the current prevailing systems within many companies at the present which utilize expectancy theory as a means of shaping human behavior to increase motivation and, as a result, an employee’s performance.

Summary

The relationship between motivation and performance management is very clear. High motivation will lead to better performance, so this is a very important component of IIP standardization which needs to be implemented in the case of the U.A.E. construction industry.

How to use IIP standards to enhance practice

Within the literature review, it was emphasized that training, degree of development, and the number of new tasks associated with a job, empowerment as well as retaining employees is inherently connected to the job. While IIP itself has been shown as being an effective means of gaining a competitive advantage, it is often necessary to supplement it with methods aimed at creating and increasing job satisfaction to ensure that the effort the company placed in developing a particular employee is not wasted should that employee leave the company due to a lack of sufficient satisfaction with how they are treated in the company. Such views, when compared to the information gained by the research through the interviews with the managers and employees at the various companies that were examined, have been proven to be correct given the same level of importance the managers placed on combining methods of talent management with job satisfaction. This study has shown that the U.A.E construction industry needs to implement methods of developing motivation, job interest as well as continuous development as aspects of both IIP and job satisfaction to create a culture of excellence for customer satisfaction.

Recommendation

This study recommends that to facilitate a culture of excellence and improve customer relations, it would be necessary to implement IIP standardization in the case of the U.A.E construction industry. This takes the form of an internal training program meant to increase the knowledge and ability of employees regarding their current job, the future leader’s program which focuses on developing the up and coming heads of the company, and lastly comes the company’s talent pool program. By implementing these distinct programs, it becomes more feasible for a company to create a more “motivating environment” for employees which would convince them to work harder and more diligently which would result in better performance outputs by the company.

Opportunities for further Examination

It is in the opinion of this paper that other studies be conducted involving the use of extrinsic methods of employee motivation which can be combined with the predominantly intrinsic methods utilized by IIP to create a more effective method of increasing customer satisfaction with their experience with the construction companies of the U.A.E. An examination of current practices by Accenture in their business process outsourcing division within the U.S., India and the Philippines reveals the use of performance-based advancement opportunities as a means of attracting and retaining employees. This process works by setting a series of metrics that each employee is measured by with an evaluation period coming once every 4 to 6 months. Should that particular employee meet the metrics set by the company, they are immediately promoted to the next tier resulting in the possibility of reaching the position of an operations manager within one of the company’s many departments within 2 years. Such a method presents itself as a quick opportunity for advancement and, as such, creates a certain degree of appeal for members of the current generation of employees that look towards quick advancement and opportunities rather than developing long-term relationships within particular teams.

A comparison of the processes utilized by Fortune 100 companies and those utilized by U.A.E based companies utilizing IIP (i.e. Etisalat, Dusit Thai, etc.) reveal a distinct level of similarity but also a considerable degree of divergence. While it was seen that both parties emphasized the necessity of talent management to create talented employees it was noted that they went about it in distinctly different ways. For U.A.E based companies, promotion and training go hand in hand and are done over a long period. It was seen that performance initiatives were important (in the form of key performance indicators) but the companies place a greater degree of importance on preparing individuals for particular roles and establishing such people as having the necessary qualifications before they are placed into such positions. Fortune 100 companies on the other hand, such as Accenture, seemingly focus more on performance-based initiatives rather than training based methods of promotion wherein individuals that have proven themselves to have a high degree of competence in meeting the metrics of the company are promoted to positions within a short period with training being implemented after such individuals have been slated for placement into such positions with training periods usually lasting a month or less.

This is indicative of a distinct divergence in practice that U.A.E companies should take into consideration given that it has proven to be an effective strategy in getting the right people into the right positions within a short amount of time as well leads to greater levels of the initiative which result in better customer service due to the desire to perform. Not only that, it creates a sense of internal competitiveness within the company that encourages people to work harder and perform better to become more successful. Such an aspect of internal competitiveness is largely absent when examining various literature on IIP standardization which focuses more on cooperation and group success rather than individual success. It was seen from the interview data that such a method was not even considered by the managers wherein the method of improving the current process of talent management within the company proposed by focused on training and promotion, rather than incentivized methods of advancement. The opinion of the researcher in this particular instance is that such a method is inherently redundant given that it would be more effective to place a series of metrics in place so that only those who reach them can be promoted rather than waiting for the training to “pay off” so to speak to make sure the right candidate is placed into a particular position. With the method utilized by IIP, this would result in considerable delays for placing talented people and would, as a result, delay the expansion of the company.

Reflective learning process for a future relevance.

When asked about the perceived limitations of the IIP program, the managers that were interviewed stated that the budget, selection process, and performance system need to be taken into consideration. Not only that, the managers mentioned that the cost of additional training programs needed to be included to better prepare the company’s workforce. The managers stated that if given the opportunity they would improve the employee training method by establishing an assessment center which will be available for newly joined employees or individuals who are slated for promotion. The idea behind this center is that it would allow the employee to attempt exams, case studies, comprehensive assignments, and projects. After completing these tests, the employee will get a report about his/her status and areas that need improvement before being eligible for promotion to a new position. When examining the comments of the managers, one cause of concern that comes up is the potential costs when it comes to implementing various aspects of IIP standardization. Aspects related to training employees and creating a means for promotion could be beyond the financial or organizational means of a construction company and, as such, can be considered one of the factors why IIP is not as prevalent within the U.A.E construction industry.

Learning outcomes of the project

Other possible opportunities for further study along the same lines as this paper could delve into a comparison of the various methods of IIP standardization in the telecommunications industry and how such variances could create a competitive advantage in regional markets. Such a comparison was not conducted in this study since the primary concern was investigating the IIP practices of the local construction industry, however, future researchers could delve into such a topic since it is quite relevant in today’s competitive markets.

Appendix

Consent Form

The impact of IIP standards on employee effectiveness in customer interaction

Dear Participant,

You are cordially invited to participate in a research study involving the examination of the impact of IIP standards on employee effectiveness in customer interaction in the case of the U.A.E. You were selected as a participant based on your knowledge on IIP standards, customer interaction and general knowledge regarding the state of customer activity in the area. Prior to participating in this study, please read through this form in order to familiarize yourself with the responses expected of you. Should you have any questions or concerns please voice them out to the researcher at any time. This study is being conducted by (PLACE NAME HERE) who is a Masters degree candidate.

Background information

The purpose of this study is to determine the full gamut of effects that have come about as a result of the IIP strategies implemented by local companies. This involves an examination of the effects of the customer relation strategies on a micro and macro scale. This entails an investigation of the regional impact of the process on company operations and at the same time involves an examination on how such processes impact employees on an individual basis. It is expected that this research study should provide an enlightening account regarding the positive and negative aspects of the processes that are currently being utilized in the case of the U.A.E

Procedures

Should you agree to participate in this study; the following will be expected of you:

  1. Sign the consent form indicating that you are willing to participate in this study and that you are allowing the researcher to utilize the information you give as part of the data analysis.
  2. Give clear, concise and above all honest answers on the questionnaire as well as to the individual interviewing you.
  3. Fill out all the segments of the questionnaire
  4. Indicate your demographic data on questionnaire
  5. Be interviewed by the researcher after finishing the questionnaire and give honest responses

Assurance of anonymity

All information that will be obtained via this method of data gathering will be kept strictly confidential with all research participants being assured of the anonymity of their responses. None of the responses will be released with any indication that they were given by a particular individual. The results will be quantified into basic statistics to ensure that no personally identifiable information can be identified. Information gathered from respondents of the survey will be destroyed after a period of 10 years to further ensure that no personal information will be leaked in any way.

Voluntary nature of the study

Your participation in this study is strictly voluntary. Your decision whether or not to participate will not affect your current or future relations with anyone involved in the study. You may withdraw from the study at any time without any penalty, even if you initially decide to participate.

Risk from undertaking the study

While there are no outright risks in participating in a study of this nature there are some long term risks that should be taken into consideration. There exists the possibility that participants in the study may face victimization or undue criticism due to the views they present which may or may not appeal to the “image” that various government agencies wish to portray themselves as. In order to prevent such problems from occurring, all data will be sealed within a locked cabinet and will not be presented without ensuring that all possible methods of identification have been removed beforehand.

Consent Form

The impact of IIP standards on employee effectiveness in customer interaction

Contacts and Questions

The researcher conducting this study is (First Name Last Name). The researcher’s adviser is XXX XXXX, Ph.D. You may ask any questions you have now. If you have questions later, you may contact us.

Contact info for researcher: Contact info for advisor:

You will receive a copy of this form from the researcher.

Statement of Consent

I have read the above information. I have asked questions and received answers. I consent to participate in the study.

Printed Name of Participant: _________________________________________

Signature: _________________________________ Date: _____________

Signature of Investigator: _____________________ Date: _____________

Participant Pseudonym: __________________________

Sample Questionnaire

Interview Questions
  1. What methods of talent management/employee training/employee empowerment do you currently employ within your company?
  2. How have you addressed the issue of customer satisfaction in your particular industry?
  3. How have you addressed the issue of developing employee motivation within the workplace?
  4. Has your company implemented training programs for employees which coincide with its current goals and aspirations within its market?
  5. How about continuous development programs, has the company implemented programs which create long term careers for its employees?
  6. How has your company addressed the issue of employee “churn” rates (i.e. the amount of people leaving the company compared to the amount entering) within the company?
  7. In your opinion what specific management practices are needed in order to ensure proper methods of talent management?
  8. Does organizational ethics factor heavily into talent management within your company?
  9. What is your opinion on the importance of developing local talent with the company? Do you believe that developing talent leads to better job satisfaction resulting in improved performance?
  10. In your opinion, what are the current limitations of your company in terms of creating happy workers?
  11. Are you aware of IIP? (Investors in People)
  12. Do your company focus on customer service such as communicating and collaborating with clients on regular basis to reassure them of the project?
  13. Do you feel motivated to accomplish “added services” on your volition/initiative for the company without any added pay?
  14. If you had the opportunity what changes would you implement in order to improve the current HR practices of the company?

Reference List

Alison J., S, & Lorna A., C 2007, ‘How does IIP deliver the lifelong learning agenda to SMEs?’, Education + Training, vol. 49, no. 8/9, pp. 720-731.

Al-Joburi, K, Al-Aomar, R, & Bahri, M 2012, ‘Analyzing the Impact of Negative Cash Flow on Construction Performance in the Dubai Area’, Journal Of Management In Engineering, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 382-390.

Baer, M, and Brown G 2012, ‘Blind in one eye: How psychological ownership of ideas affects the types of suggestions people adopt’, Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, vol. 118, no. 1, pp.60-71.

Bell, E, Taylor, S, & Thorpe, R 2001, ‘Investors in People and the Standardization of Professional Knowledge in Personnel Management’, Management Learning, vol. 32, no. 2, p. 201.

Bell, E, Taylor, S, & Thorpe, R 2002a, ‘A Step in the Right Direction? Investors in People and the Learning Organization’, British Journal Of Management, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 161.

Bell, E, Taylor, S, & Thorpe, R 2002b, ‘Organizational differentiation through badging: investors in people and the value of the sign’, Journal Of Management Studies, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1071-1085.

Bertrand, B 2012, ‘President’s Message: Investing in People as Educational Change Agents — 75 Years and Counting’, Technology & Engineering Teacher, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 4-6.

Burgess, S, & Williams, I 2009, ‘Investing in your people works – can 40,000 organisations be wrong?’, Library Management, vol. 30, no. 8/9, pp. 608-618.

Carrington, L 2003, ‘IIP ADDS MANAGEMENT MODEL’, Training Magazine, p. 5.

Chamorro, T, and Furnham, P 2010, ‘The psychology of personnel selection’, Cambridge university Press, Cambridge.

Cho, A 2012, ‘Abu Dhabi Megaprojects Prepare for Liftoff’, ENR: Engineering News-Record, vol. 268, p. 1.

Christelis, D, & Georgarakos, D 2013, ‘Investing at home and abroad: Different costs, different people?’, Journal Of Banking & Finance, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 2069-2086.

Conley, C 2007, ‘Peak how great companies get their mojo from Maslow’. Jossey-Bass,1sted, San Francisco.

‘Construction’ 2013, MEED: Middle East Economic Digest, vol. 57, no. 16, p. 27.

Dam, K 2008, ‘Daily Work Context and Resistance to Organizational Change: The Role of Leader-Member Exchange, Development, Climate and Change Process Characteristics’, Applied Psychology, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 313-334.

Down, S, & Smith, D 1998, ‘It pays to be nice to people’, Personnel Review, vol. 27, no. 1/2, pp. 143-155.

‘Economic sectors: Construction’ 2003, Country Profile. United Arab Emirates, pp. 39-40.

‘Economic sectors’ 2004, Country Profile. United Arab Emirates, pp. 31-44.

Flaxington, BD 2013, ‘Investing in People: An Adviser’s Most Important Asset’, Journal Of Financial Planning, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 16-18.

Fraser, S 2003, ‘The impact of Investors in People on small business growth: who benefits?’, Environment & Planning C: Government & Policy, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 793-812.

Foreman, C 2009, ‘Contractors pay for falling prices’, MEED: Middle East Economic Digest, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 27-30.

Foreman, C 2012, ‘Analysis: Abu Dhabi remains on top despite fall’, MEED: Middle East Economic Digest, vol. 56, no. 45, p. 16.

Grey, C 2009, ‘Human relations theory and people management’, 2nded, Sage Publications Ltd,London, pp. 44-64.

Hilton, M, and Whiteford, H 2010, ‘Interacting with the public as a risk factor for employee psychological distress’, BMC Public Health, vol. 10, no.1, p.435.

Hogg, G, Carter, S, & Dunne, A 1998, ‘Investing in People: Internal Marketing and Corporate Culture’, Journal Of Marketing Management, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 879-895.

Hoque, K 2008, ‘The impact of Investors in People on employer-provided training, the equality of training provision and the ‘training apartheid’ phenomenon’, Industrial Relations Journal, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 43-62.

‘IIP backs HR to solve the productivity problem’ 2002, Personnel Today, p. 1.

‘IIP for DCA DLC’ 2005, Credit Management, p. 18.

‘IIP framework aims to ‘wake up’ business’ 2003, Personnel Today, p. 10.

‘IiP successes’ 2004, British Dental Journal, vol. 197, no. 10, p. 601.

Jones, R 2012, ‘Organizational design and strategy in a changing global environment.6thed. Upper Saddle, New Jersey. pp.207-239.

Joslin, F, Waters, L, and Dudgeon, P 2010, ‘Perceived acceptance and work standards as predictors of work attitudes and behavior and employee psychological distress following an internal business merger, Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp.22-43.

Koen D, and Maaike, A 2011,’ Linking leadership empowerment behaviour to employee attitudes and behavioural intentions: Testing the mediating role of psychological empowerment’, Personnel Review, vol.40, no.3, pp. 284-305.

‘Large-scale projects back on the agenda’ 2012, MEED: Middle East Economic Digest, p. 20.

Lloyd,H, and Mey, M 2010, ‘An Ethics Model to develop an ethical organisation’, SA Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.8, no.1, pp. 1-12.

Martin, M 2012, ‘Mubadala Development Company’, MEED: Middle East Economic Digest, vol. 56, no. 51, pp. 4.

Mittal, S 2012, ‘Managing employee resistance to change a comparative study of Indian organisations and mncs in delhi-ncr region’, Researchers World: Journal Of Arts, Science & Commerce, vol.3, no. 4, pp. 64-71.

Oreg, S, & Sverdlik, N 2011, ‘Ambivalence Toward Imposed Change: The Conflict Between Dispositional Resistance to Change and the Orientation Toward the Change Agent’, Journal Of Applied Psychology, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 337-349.

Oreg, S, and Cornell, U 2003, ‘Dept of Organizational Behavior’, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 680-693.

Pardo, D, and Martinez, C 2003, ‘Resistance to Change: a Literature Review and Empirical Study’, Management Decision, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 148-155.

Q&A: Nasser AL-Mansoori’ 2013, MEED: Middle East Economic Digest, p. 7.

Reade, Q 2004, ‘New IIP standard focuses on employee involvement’, Personnel Today, p. 2.

Scott, A 2006, ‘Where next for IIP?’, People Management, vol. 12, no. 23, p. 11.

Shekaran, K 2008, ‘Construction Cost Study of Abu Dhabi and Dubai Bridges and Road Works’, Cost Engineering, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 10-16.

Smith, A, Boocock, G, Loan-Clarke, J, & Whittaker, J 2002, ‘IIP and SMEs: awareness, benefits and barriers’, Personnel Review, vol. 31, no. 1/2, p. 62.

‘Special Report: UAE’ 2013, MEED: Middle East Economic Digest, vol. 57, no. 8, p. 27.

Strebel, P 1996, ‘Why Do Employees Resist Change?’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 86-92.

‘Study links IIP to bottom-line boost’ 2008, People Management, vol. 14, no. 24, p. 10.

Tsai, C, & Mcgill, A 2011, ‘No Pain, No Gain? How Fluency and Construal Level Affect Consumer Confidence’, Journal Of Consumer Research, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 807-821.

Van Dijk, R, & Van Dick, R 2009, ‘Navigating Organizational Change: Change Leaders, Employee Resistance and Work-based Identities’, Journal Of Change Management, vol. 9, no.2, pp. 143-163.

Vithessonthi, C, & Schwaninger, M 2008, ‘Job motivation and self-confidence for learning and development as predictors of support for change’, Journal Of Organisational Transformation & Social Change, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 141-157.

Watts, M 2012, ‘Analysis Abu Dhabi EPC market set for upturn’, MEED: Middle East Economic Digest, vol. 56, no. 11, p. 12.

West, A 2001, ‘Investors in People: a case study relating to HE administration’, Perspectives: Policy & Practice In Higher Education, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 107-110.

Wiles, R 2007, ‘FACING EAST ALL EYES NOW ON THE EMIRATES’, Inwood, vol. 74, pp. 30-31.

Wu, L, Yim, F, Kwan, H, and Zhang, X 2012, ‘Coping with Workplace Ostracism: The Roles of Ingratiation and Political Skill in Employee Psychological Distress’, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 49, no. 1, pp.178-199.

Zaneldin, EK 2006, ‘Construction claims in United Arab Emirates: Types, causes, and frequency’, International Journal Of Project Management, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 453-459.

Print Сite this

Cite this paper

Select style

Reference

StudyCorgi. (2021, April 8). Investor's Role in Creating Culture of Excellence. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/investors-role-in-creating-culture-of-excellence/

Work Cited

"Investor's Role in Creating Culture of Excellence." StudyCorgi, 8 Apr. 2021, studycorgi.com/investors-role-in-creating-culture-of-excellence/.

1. StudyCorgi. "Investor's Role in Creating Culture of Excellence." April 8, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/investors-role-in-creating-culture-of-excellence/.


Bibliography


StudyCorgi. "Investor's Role in Creating Culture of Excellence." April 8, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/investors-role-in-creating-culture-of-excellence/.

References

StudyCorgi. 2021. "Investor's Role in Creating Culture of Excellence." April 8, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/investors-role-in-creating-culture-of-excellence/.

References

StudyCorgi. (2021) 'Investor's Role in Creating Culture of Excellence'. 8 April.

Copy to clipboard

This paper was written and submitted to our database by a student to assist your with your own studies. You are free to use it to write your own assignment, however you must reference it properly.

If you are the original creator of this paper and no longer wish to have it published on StudyCorgi, request the removal.

Psst... Stuck with your
assignment? 😱
Susan
Online
Psst... Stuck with your assignment? 😱
Do you need an essay to be done?
Yes
What type of assignment 📝 do you need?
Yes
How many pages (words) do you need? Let's see if we can help you!
Yes