Psychological Traits in Consumer Behavior

Introduction

The development and survival of corporations in the globalized and expanding market depend on their capacity to satisfy customers. Consumer fulfillment pivot on recognizing, understanding, and executing the advertising techniques, data on the behavior consumers display in processing, handling, utilizing, and discarding goods to satisfy their requirements and needs. These behaviors are elements of ecological, social, individual, and psychological variables. Personality is one of the psychological factors that stimulate consumer purchasing behavior (Houdek 2016; Jo, Song & Kim 2017; Granero et al. 2016). Consumer purchasing pattern is a procedure by which customers recognize their needs, gather data, assess options, and settle on the product choice. A progression of decisions made by a purchaser starts once the client has the will to purchase. The supplier endeavors to influence these choices by providing data that may shape the customer’s assessment. These activities are controlled by mental and economic factors and are impacted by ecological factors, for example, social gathering, and social qualities.

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Personality recognizes one individual from another and molds personal interaction with the ecosystem. An individual’s attitude, perception, preference, and quality characterize his or her personality. Personality is influenced by oblivious drives, natural impacts, and cognizance (Hidalgo-Baz, Martos-Partal & González-Benito 2017; Stewart et al. 2018). Consumer behavior covers a broad scope of exercises from the problem recognition phase, post-purchase pattern, or encounters to fulfill their need. It involves the investigation of individual needs, inspirations, choices, and patterns of buying unique products and services. Consumers buying patterns sometimes mirror their personality. Personality is an individual’s reliable form of reaction. Personality is a class of distinctive human psychological traits that stimulates reactions to environmental improvements (Granero et al. 2016). It portrays the control of the person’s character traits, attitudes, and propensities (Granero et al. 2016). It is portrayed as having at least one quality, for example, consistent, enthusiasm, ethnocentrism, fanaticism, dictatorship, contemplation extroversion, forcefulness, social character, ectomorph, and intensity (Siegling & Petrides 2016). Personality types can differentiate an individual. Advertisers of different items study the personality traits of the target group and deploy publicizing programs at improving the behavior of the group.

Importance of the Proposed Study

Numerous elements are influencing the disposition and expectations to buy a product or service. However, analysts must study personality traits as the first factor of consumer behavior. Personality factors have critical and conclusive impacts on framing attitudes and goals of consumers. In this manner, the consumer is influenced by behavioral goals, for example, making purchases, building his or her image predisposition, and spreading the news of a brand (Boswell, Byrne &Davies 2018). Thus, it is important to investigate the results of personality traits in the control of advertising factors. Based on this context of the study, this investigation expects to evaluate physiological traits as a determinant for consumer purchasing behavior.

The Research Problem

The assumption by Adam Smith that utilization is the opposite of production holds firm if the manufacturer deploys promoting programs that perceive the personality contrasts with the intended interest groups based on their perception and use. Exclusive variables may affect consumers to change one brand to another if it contradicts their personality. Manufacturers use different marketing strategies and psychological adverts to boost their competitive edge. However, the challenge goes beyond advertising and rewards. Manufacturers must forecast when personality becomes a critical factor in purchasing choice. Hence, this study investigates different personality traits that are overwhelming in buying consumer goods, for example, motivation, attitude, perception, ethnocentrism, and consumer inventiveness. The study intends to recognize the quality that can create extraordinary personality traits to coordinate consumers in the territory. There has been a general conviction that social orders display some personality stratification, whereby people can be classified within a personality status. The challenge is how psychological traits can assist in the comprehension of a client’s quality and behavior. The theories of personality include the Neo-Freudian and trait hypothesis (Bardi & Zentner 2017). A few studies have been conducted on the relationship between purchasing patterns and product quality. However, there is a gap in knowledge concerning individual physiological traits in consumer behavior. Thus, the gap in literature motivates the decision for this study.

Objectives of the Study

The principal target of this investigation is to evaluate the connection between personality variables and customer purchasing patterns. To accomplish this target, the accompanying auxiliary objectives will be considered.

  1. Determine the link between social character as a psychological trait and consumer behavior.
  2. Investigate the connection between attitude as a psychological trait and consumer behavior.
  3. Evaluate the link between perception and consumer behavior.
  4. Investigate the relationship between motivation as a psychological trait and consumer purchasing behavior.

Research Questions

Based on the objective of the study, the research intends to answer four specific questions.

  1. What is the connection between social character and consumer behavior?
  2. What is the relationship between attitude as a psychological trait and consumer-buying pattern?
  3. What is the connection between perception and consumer behavior?
  4. Is there any significant relationship between motivation and consumer purchasing behavior?

The Scope of the Study

This examination is restricted in substance and broad base. The issues raised and examined depend on consumer behavior discoveries on personality traits. The subject of consumer behavior can be studied using different concepts; however, the psychological perspective presents the individual contrasts with consumers by investigating the features of personality traits such as inspiration, convictions, and discernment. The psychological angle to this study is captivating because it cannot be clarified. With the reason for delineating these psychological ideas, a more profound analysis of internal impacts, inspirational bearing, and consumer disposition is fundamental. This examination conceptualizes consumer-buying behavior.

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Literature Review

Psychological Segmentation

When psychological attributes of goods and their users are deployed to differentiate a brand from its substitutes, the advertiser considers market psychology (Hashimoto & Karasawa 2018). Segmentation is a marketing tool used as a competitive advantage to separate a product’s origin, area, character, or responsiveness to advertising instruments. Segmentation based on target location prompts deliberate circulation and physical accessibility of goods (Hidalgo-Baz, Martos-Partal & González-Benito 2017). Consequently, financial segmentation dependent on income stimulates price differentiation.

When market properties are homogeneous with reference to physical or statistical attributes, segmentation depends on the psychological traits of the consumer (Hashimoto & Karasawa 2018). Psychological segmentation consolidates properties or advantages into the item because it is seen as an entity that represents individual quality and objectives (Hidalgo-Baz, Martos-Partal & González-Benito 2017; Bardi & Zentner 2017). It is achieved by creating a picture or personality through the accentuation of traits that are utilized to describe human identities. Goods and services accomplish significant relationships with traits, for example, sociable, dynamic, preservationist, reliable, and enduring. Consumers utilize these relationships to formulate item inclinations that influence their buying behavior. Psychological trait clarification offer opportunities in separating these sectors.

Personality Theory and Consumer Behavior

Researchers have endeavored to answer the study question of why an item or brand is purchased. Sociologists have utilized social strata, reference gatherings, peer impacts, family life cycle, and different ideas to clarify consumer behavior (Stewart et al. 2018). Psychoanalysts have endeavored to go further and search for clarification within the consumer level. While they perceived that consumers could be classified into different gatherings and classes, the suggestions exclude the interpretation of individual contrasts in behavior. People with similar social levels manifest different patterns. Thus, intra-gathering contrasts cannot be explained by sociological ideas. Psychological hypotheses, including personality theory, have been utilized to clarify differences among individuals. Thus, personality alludes to manners that underlie behavior (Hidalgo-Baz, Martos-Partal & González-Benito 2017). The conducts of an individual are accepted as an organized structure that collaborates with the ecosystem.

Theories of Personality

There are numerous ways to deal with contemplating personality. Distinctive concepts of psychological traits influence the theories of personality (Hidalgo-Baz, Martos-Partal & González-Benito 2017; Pfeiler & Egloff 2018). These hypotheses were created to clarify the structure, procedure, and advancement of human behavior (Pfeiler & Egloff 2018). Theories of personality include psychoanalytic hypothesis, Neo-Freudian hypothesis, behavioral hypothesis, humanistic hypothesis, social-psychological hypothesis, and trait hypothesis. The psychoanalytical assumption and the Neo-Freudian hypothesis have helped consumer behavior investigators (Pfeiler & Egloff 2018; Hidalgo-Baz, Martos-Partal & González-Benito 2017; Bardi & Zentner 2017).

Neo-Freudian Hypothesis

The Neo-Freudian hypothesis suggests that social connections are central to personality development. For example, Alfred Adler revealed how individuals try to achieve a different objective, which he called ‘style of life.’ The physiotherapist emphasized that consumer endeavors to conquer sentiments of inadequacy. The term Neo-Freudian has been utilized to portray individuals who left the psychoanalytic culture and framed their perspectives (Bardi & Zentner 2017). The new hypotheses hold a significant number of fundamental convictions of analysis, in particular, the perspective on the unconscious as drive-in human feelings, perceptions, and behaviors. As indicated in a recent study, individuals consistently endeavor to create remunerating associations with others (Barbopoulos & Johansson 2017). The researcher was troubled by the individual exertion to reduce strain, for example, nervousness. Advertisers and manufacturers utilize the Neo-Freudian speculations instinctively. For instance, manufacturers and advertisers who position their products based on the social class would appear to be guided by the portrayal of the disconnected individual (Barbopoulos & Johansson 2017).

Trait Hypothesis

The trait hypothesis is a measurable way to deal with personality. The theory hypothesizes that a person’s character comprises specific preference properties called traits. A trait is characterized as any discernable pattern by which one differentiates from another. Therefore, personality is depicted as having at least one attribute as urgency, desire, gregariousness, opinion, despotism, ethnocentrism, inner-directedness, extroversion, forcefulness, and intensity. Trait analysts have discovered that it is reasonable to anticipate personality to be connected to how clients settle on their decisions to buy a product class (Lee et al. 2018).

Personality Measurement

There have been attempts to establish the methods and generalization structure, which clarify the contrasts between people. Various personality hypotheses have been created to decide the likenesses and contrasts among people and to consider how these similitudes develop as a structure or model (Adan, Forero & Navarro 2017). Greek researchers acknowledged that the physical and profound wellbeing of an individual relied on the harmony among four body fluids. Sigmund Freud’s hypothesis emphasized that personality is separated into super conscience, self-image, and identity (Adan, Forero & Navarro 2017). Personality traits thrive with voluntary cooperation among them. Biological drives, which convey sexual implications, assume a role in this cooperation. This methodology is a standout among the best and famous personality hypotheses.

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Personality and Consumer Buying Pattern

Consumer buying behavior describes one’s personality. For example, house materials, furniture, machines, and cars people purchase may reflect their identity. Advertisers in this manner, create products based on the personality sorts of their objective clients (Leng et al. 2017; Lee et al. 2018). Based on social class, individuals are worried about their status, which is an immediate result of their real thriving. The profession of the occupation an individual affects the items they consume. The individual status is represented through different images like the dress codes, clichés, and assets. As a result, the style of living that reflects a person’s identity and ideas is similar to consumer behavior. A way of life comprises an individual method of living as recognized by his or her actions, intrigue, and feelings. Like social class, human life significantly affects consumer behavior. The existence cycle is an efficient arrangement of stages in which consumer demeanor and behavioral propensities develop with experience, wages, and status (Lee et al. 2018).

The Relationship Between Personality and Consumer Buying Behavior

There is no understanding among examiners on the relationship between personality and consumer purchasing behavior (Lee et al. 2018). A recent survey discovered a positive connection between personality and product use (Aboujaoude 2017). However, another research indicated an insignificant connection between the proportions of personality traits and discrete occurrences of consumer behavior (Wong, Hsu & Chen 2018). The authors depicted as ‘baffling’ the utilization of the general personality instrument to clarify the buying behavior (Loureiro, Sarmento & Le Bellego 2017).

Psychological Traits and Consumer Behavior

Motivation

Motivation is an enacted personal requirement prompting an objective guided behavior to fulfill that need. Similarly, intentions can be characterized as persistent, reliable, and relentless boosts that excite and direct action toward specific goals (Siegling & Petrides 2016). The beginning stage in the purchasing procedure is the acknowledgment of a need. A need might be characterized as the absence of something helpful. An individual can be spurred to purchase an item for comfort, style, recognition, pride, or being at par with others (Siegling & Petrides 2016). When advertisers realize what stimulates motivation, they could create promoting strategies to impact consumers’ motivation to consider, be included with, and process data about their image (Conner et al. 2017).

Perception

Perception is described as the energy that makes one mindful of the surroundings and appends significance after a detecting process. An individual unexpectedly sees his/her surroundings based on the hype, social class, or income. A few people have similar thoughts regarding a particular occasion. Perception describes how consumers comprehend the world, and it depends on data acquired (Adan, Forero & Navarro 2017). Consumers subliminally assess their necessities, quality, and desires, and after that, they utilize the assessment to choose, arrange, and decipher the motivation (Siegling & Petrides 2016; Houdek 2016). The commercial view of a brand is critical, which is the reason an organization work to guarantee that the general discernment encompassing them and their industry is positive. As a result, organizations like Sony will pay celebrities to demonstrate their items. By adjusting the way individuals feel about these celebrities with the brand, Sony can improve the view of their image or strengthen the consumer’s positive perception (Leng et al. 2017; Houdek 2016).

Learning

Learning depicts changes in a person’s behavior emerging for a fact. In each condition, perception is molded by the related knowledge. By implication, an individual gains from experience and keeps balance or consistency by identifying and deciphering improvements based on previous stimuli. The significance of the learning hypothesis of advertisers is that they can create interest for an item by connecting with solid drives, utilizing inspiring prompts, and giving similar signs since purchasers are bound to trade reliability with comparative brands (Conner et al. 2017).

Beliefs and Attitudes

Belief can be described as a conviction that an individual holds about something. Attitude can be described as an individual’s enduring good or ominous subjective assessments, enthusiastic sentiments, and active inclinations toward a brand or thought. People can have explicit convictions and attitudes towards some products and services (Conner et al. 2017). Advertisers are keen on the beliefs that individuals create for specific brands because consumers build opinions about an item’s characteristics and after that, through these convictions, structure a brand picture about a particular product (Leng et al. 2017). Individuals have attitudes regarding religion, national issues, garments, music, and food. It is important to note that attitude affects consumer behavior. Advertisers find winning attitude towards their item and attempt to make it positive.

Research Methodology

Research Design

This examination utilizes the quantitative technique for testing the theories identified as independent and dependent variables. The independent variable includes personality traits, perception, motivation, learning, and attitude (Turk et al. 2018). Consumer-Buying behavior represents the dependent variable for this study. The primary objective of purposive testing is to concentrate on the specific quality of a population, which will best empower the researcher to answer the study questions. A useful research design is a process of recognizing the study population and building an efficient method for choosing cases that do not depend on an informed knowledge of probable outcomes. The intention is to enhance the acceptability and not to encourage representativeness (Turk et al. 2018). In straightforward terms, the multi-stage sampling categorizes large clusters of the sample population into smaller groups in a few phases to make information accumulation manageable. This sampling method addresses the challenges of research cost and time.

Population and Sampling

The objective sample participants in this exploration are consumers between 18 and 60 years. The random sampling technique will be used to choose the research participants. Using research ethics and practices, the selected population will be appropriate for this investigation.

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Questionnaire Design

The questionnaire will be designed based on the relevant literature and research objectives. The survey contains four sections. The initial segment is about statistical data. Each question is designed with multiple-choice answers except the subject of age, which is an open inquiry. The remaining sections of the questionnaire deal with purchase intentions, personality traits, and consumer behaviors. Each question will be estimated using the 5-point Liker Scale.

Reliability and Validity of Research Instrument

Reliability and validity delineate the exactness and accuracy of research (Aggarwal & Ranganathan 2019). Reliability and validity have different implications in subjective and quantitative research. The measures for research reliability and validity included triangulation, fact-checking, observing predisposition, and discrepant information (Aggarwal & Ranganathan 2019). The researchers attested that reliability alludes to the consistency in the outcome of qualitative research (Patino & Ferreira 2018). Reliability diminishes mistakes and inclinations, to guarantee the information is valid and believable (Patino & Ferreira 2018). Triangulation of information includes utilizing different sources of data to expand the validity of the examination.

Data Collection and Analysis

The study will collect information using primary and secondary sources. Data collected will be coded to analyze the mean and frequency of responses. The study will use the t-test to interpret the research findings. Information purifying, which include removing irrelevant information that does not fit with the study criterion will be used to test the outcome (Aggarwal & Ranganathan 2019).

Pretest and Test Reliability

The motivation for a reliable test is to guarantee the nature of the survey and the consistency of the outcome. Therefore, to achieve a credible investigation, this proposal will utilize the Cronbach’s Alpha measurement.

Proposed Timeline

The schedule will consider cost, location, and time. Since the study depends on the responses of participants, the proposed timeline will find an appropriate time for the survey (see Table 1).

Table 1: Research Timeline.

Dates Remark
Week 1 Introducing the research topic
Week 2 Choosing the sample location
Week 3 Introducing the participants
Week 4 Data collection from participants
Week 5 Data analysis and recommendations
Week 6 Project summary

Reference List

Aboujaoude, E 2017, ‘The Internet’s effect on personality traits: an important casualty of the “Internet addiction” paradigm’, Journal of Behavioral Addictions, vol. 6, pp. 1-4.

Adan, A, Forero, D & Navarro, J 2017, ‘Personality traits related to binge drinking: a systematic review’, Frontiers in Psychiatry, vol. 8, pp. 134-140.

Aggarwal, R & Ranganathan, P 2019, ‘Study designs: part 2-descriptive studies’, Perspectives in Clinical Research, vol. 10, no.1, pp. 1-34.

Barbopoulos, I & Johansson, L 2017, ‘The consumer motivation scale: a detailed review of item generation, exploration, confirmation, and validation procedures’, Data in Brief, vol. 13, pp. 88-107.

Bardi, A & Zentner, M 2017, ‘Grand challenges for personality and social psychology: moving beyond the replication crisis’, Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, pp. 2068-2072.

Boswell, N, Byrne, R & Davies, P 2018, ‘Eating behavior traits associated with demographic variables and implications for obesity outcomes in early childhood’, Appetite, vol. 120, pp. 482-490.

Conner, T, Thompson, L, Knight, R, Flett, J, Richardson, A & Brookie, K 2017, ‘The role of personality traits in young adult fruit and vegetable consumption’, Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, pp. 119-123.

Granero, R, Fernández-Aranda, F, Steward, T, Mestre-Bach, G, Baño, M, del Pino-Gutiérrez, A, Moragas, L, Aymamí, N, Gómez-Peña, M, Mallorquí-Bagué, N, Tárrega, S, Menchón, J & Jiménez-Murcia, S 2016, ‘Compulsive buying behavior: characteristics of comorbidity with gambling disorder’, Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 7, pp. 625-628.

Hashimoto, T & Karasawa, K 2018, ‘Impact of consumer power on consumers’ reactions to corporate transgression’, PLOS ONE, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 34-67.

Hidalgo-Baz, M, Martos-Partal, M & González-Benito, Ó 2017, ‘Attitudes vs. purchase behaviors as experienced dissonance: the roles of knowledge and consumer orientations in organic market’, Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, pp. 248-263.

Houdek, P 2016, ‘A perspective on consumers 3.0: they are not better decision-makers than previous generations’, Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 7, pp. 848-854.

Jo, H Song, T & Kim, B 2017, ‘Analysis of the factors affecting consumer acceptance of accredited online health information’, Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1757-1760.

Lee, J, Averett, P, Blanchflower, T & Gregory, K 2018, ‘Qualitative assessment of a context of consumption framework to inform regulation of cigarette pack design in the U.S’, Tobacco Induced Diseases, vol. 16, pp. 1-11.

Leng, G, Adan, R, Belot, M, Brunstrom, J, de Graaf, K, Dickson, S, Hare, T, Maier, S, Menzies, J, Preissl, H, Reisch, L, Rogers, P & Smeets, P 2017, ‘The determinants of food choice’, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 316-327.

Loureiro, S, Sarmento, E & Le Bellego, G 2017, ‘The effect of corporate brand reputation on brand attachment and brand loyalty: automobile sector’, Cogent Business & Management, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 345-350.

Patino, C & Ferreira, J 2018, ‘Internal and external validity: can you apply research study results to your patients?’, Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 183-183.

Pfeiler, T & Egloff, B 2018, ‘Personality and attitudinal correlates of meat consumption: results of two representative German samples’, Appetite, vol. 121, pp. 294-301.

Siegling, A & Petrides, K 2016, ‘Drive: theory and construct validation’, PLOS ONE, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 145-165.

Stewart, K, Wesselius, A, Schreurs, M, Schols, A & Zeegers, M 2018, ‘Behavioural changes, sharing behavior and psychological responses after receiving direct-to-consumer genetic test results: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, Journal of Community Genetics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-18.

Turk, T, Elhady, M, Rashed, S, Abdelkhalek, M, Nasef, S, Khallaf, A, Mohammed, A, Attia, A, Adhikari, P, Amin, M, Hirayama, K & Huy, N 2018, ‘Quality of reporting web-based and non-web-based survey studies: what authors, reviewers and consumers should consider’, PLOS ONE, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 290-300.

Wong, S, Hsu, C & Chen, H 2018, ‘To buy or not to buy? Consumer attitudes and purchase intentions for suboptimal food’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1431-1443.

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