Should countries give unlimited freedom to biomedical technology?
The question ‘Should countries give unlimited freedom to biomedical technology?’ is very important because it guides the focus of the theme in the essay, which concerns technological advancement in the biomedical sector. Precisely, the essence of the question takes effect because, throughout the chapter titled ‘Policies for the Future’, the author explains the advantages and demerits of technological advancements in the field of biomedicine (Fukuyama 203).
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As such, the question, which regards the provision of unlimited freedom, is very crucial and relates well with the theme in the chapter. The author explains the processes of human conception using genetic modifications, germline engineering, and the creation of hybrids such as chimeras. Unlimited freedom implies the provision of rights so that the doctors and biomedical practitioners can undertake their experiments without limitations.
Also, freedom can lead to the development of genetically engineered human beings resulting from the tests. From the arguments advanced in the chapter, the question is relevant and practical, and thus, its application leads to a productive exposition of the theme.
Work, Leisure, and Technology
Activities undertaken to achieve a particular objective is what represents work. Apparently, the individuals used in the excerpt focus on a particular objective of achieving a specific goal, which is human engineering. While other improvements in plants and animals have yielded varying results, human engineering is a field that has not become a subject of several genetic developments. According to Fukuyama, when biomedical practitioners and other stakeholders in the government undertake a task to attain a certain goal, they are indeed doing what the experts call work (207). As such, work implies a task that leads to presumed outcome or result.
Evidently, while the results yielded in the aftermath of biomedical experiments are dissatisfying, experts in the field are still determined that the future of humanity is one characterized by hybrid individuals modified from a range of species.
Consequently, leisure represents the period when one is not in active engagement. The modern world characterized by several activities has compelled men to devise various ways of relaxing and enjoying some time free from any activity. In the excerpt, biomedical experts assess the development of future human beings and state that they are likely to be different from the present individuals. The outcome of germline engineering and the creation of chimeras is a feature that explains a different set of individuals in the future.
In the assertion of Fukuyama, genetically engineered individuals may not need leisure or maybe leisure-oriented (218). In actual sense, the time used to relax and rest represents leisure as it utilizes its cornerstones. It is vital to underline the fact that rest is the core cornerstones of leisure, and as such, by utilizing them, humans are engaging in leisure.
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The recent developments that concern the use of scientific knowledge to create a new generation of human beings represent technology. In effect, the use of scientific knowledge to initiate gene modifications is a practical utilization of technology in the biomedical field. The results of technologically modified plants are hybrids that have several merits and demerits. While plants and some animals have become subjects of the knowledge acquired by doctors and other practitioners in the biomedical field, human beings have been skeptical in accepting the experimentation. Notably, the technology employs skills so that a certain product or entity undergoes modifications to adopt modern and improved requirements.
However, in as much as technology encourages the application of knowledge to advance the state of entities, human life is sacred and any advancement can result in negative and dire consequences (Fukuyama 217). It is paramount to explain that some entities, which did not conform to the changes advanced by technology, became outmoded.
The Place of Work and Leisure in the Life of Individuals in the Society
Fundamentally, individuals value work and leisure at an equivalent level. The equivalent value accorded to leisure and work is a modern development occasioned by an increased understanding of the benefits of the two aspects, which are leisure and work. While work is important and helps improve human livelihoods, leisure is equally beneficial as it relaxes the body and prolongs human life. Fukuyama explains that human beings have unique traits that define their need to work or relax (207). The modern perception of leisure and work is different from past perceptions, where individuals viewed leisure as a waste of time. The implication of the changes in perception is the creation of time when people can engage in mental and goal-oriented activities and the time when they have to rest and relax.
The place of work in society is high and income-oriented. The high and income-oriented placement of work by society is because work is a source of revenue for several individuals in modern societies. Globally, people engage in a wide range of activities, which have specific objectives to earn income and advance their living standards. The importance of work in earning income places it in a high position about other human requirements.
Consequently, the little focus or value attached to leisure in past periods is a clear expression of how society values work. In the explanation of Deem, people associate themselves with various professions as a way of affirming that they are working (95). The placement has led to innovation and creativity among individuals, who devise new strategies of working to attain a certain set of objectives. In the context of biomedical practitioners, work for them implies the development of a new set of human life, which is different from the commonly known ways of life practiced by contemporary individuals.
On the other hand, increased knowledge and concern for human health has elevated the place of leisure from its past position to a level equal with work. Modern individuals understand that leisure is crucial in enhancing body fitness and health.
Employers also understand that for increased productivity in firms, human resources need to have a period when they rest. Deem asserts that the future of humanity is one that strives to increase leisure time and minimize the period when they undertake mentally challenging activities (109). The assertion of Deem, who states that human beings are focusing on increased leisure time and reducing work-related activities, is a clear expression of the rising value attached to leisure. Therefore, the society places leisure in high regard and at a level, which is almost equivalent, to that accorded to work.
Impact of Technology on Work and Leisure
The impact that technology has on leisure and work is pronounced. Notably, technology concerns the use of information to advance the process involved in executing a given set of activities. For instance, technology has initiated the development of machines that minimize the human effort, while increasing the quality and scale of production in various manufacturing companies (Deem 56). It is essential to understand that the role that technology plays in human life is multifaceted, and thus, touches on all aspects of human life such as work and leisure. In asserting the essence of technology, Pope John Paul II stated in his ‘Laborem Exercens’ that the role of technology is one that scholars cannot underestimate.
In the context of biomedicine, technology has led to various developments that have amplified the quality of services delivered in hospitals. Besides, it has led to the development of hybrid plant and animal species that have unique qualities. Remarkably, the rising importance of leisure in society is an outcome of an increased understating that leisure is good for physical fitness and health, a factor that has a direct relationship with technological advancements in the biomedical field.
Essentially, technology has a high impact on various activities undertaken by people in modern societies. The impact of technology is tremendous and the role that it plays is evident. Several organizations are utilizing machines and equipment developed because of advanced technology to undertake their operations. According to Fukuyama, the role that technology plays in the biomedical sector is remarkable (205).
Besides its remarkable role in the biomedical sector, technology has instigated the creation of several machines and equipment that ease operations in various companies. Principally, the equipment and machines, which came into being because of technology, have made work easier in various companies and increased the level of efficiency. Augmented quality and scale of production are some of the benefits that technology has brought about in the working aspect of human life. Companies are now manufacturing and releasing various products in the expected quality and supply because of improved technology.
In the context of leisure, technology has had a tremendous impact. The scale of relaxation and leisure has improved over time owing to the advancements in technology. Several accommodation facilities, spa resorts, and relaxation outlets have utilized technological expertise to develop and use the latest and high-end facilities, which amplify the quality of service (Deem 46). Imperatively, modern individuals are having great times relaxing unlike those, who lived in the 19th century. The higher scale of enjoyment and fulfilled relaxation needs associated with modern societies takes place because of technology and its role in the sector.
Food, swimming pools, and hiking spots are some of the various relaxation activities that have experienced the impact of technology. Furthermore, technology has facilitated an increased understanding of the wide spectrum of relaxation activities that boost the health of individuals. By increasing the understanding of both the service providers and consumers, recreational centers strive to deliver the best services to their clients, and as such, relaxing individuals enjoy their leisure time in an optimum manner.
The Role that Making a Living Plays in Making a Life
The role or part that making a living plays in making a life involves the scale of satisfaction and happiness derived from a task that one undertakes. Actually, making a living is a process of acquiring resources, money, and other features that lead to a good life. On the other hand, making a life involves enjoying a task or a job that one is undertaking. At times individuals make a living but do not make a life.
When individuals do not enjoy whatever they are engaging in irrespective of the returns, then they are making a living. However, when one derives maximum pleasure and enjoys doing a given task, the person is making a life. In the words of Deem, several individuals associate good life with resources and income (67). Contrastingly, when people enjoy whatever they are doing, the returns become satisfying, and the task becomes fulfilling, and thus, they eventually make a life.
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While several individuals in the world are struggling to make a living, others are enjoying life and living it to its fullness. The main difference between those, who make a living and those who make a living lies like their engagements and the satisfaction derived in the aftermath. When people participate in a task that they love and enjoy doing, the level of satisfaction is high as opposed to a task that they dislike. It is imperative to understand that making a living is accessing the means to live.
According to Deem, people make a living when they acquire resources, money, and other material things that complement life (63). However, when individuals make a living through activities that they do not like, they are indeed failing to make a life. Consequently, when individuals engage in a task that they like and do it to its optimum level, they eventually make life and receive the satisfaction that comes with fulfillment.
Deem, Rosemary. Work, Unemployment and Leisure. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.
Fukuyama, Francis. Our Post human Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York: Picador, 2002. Print.